Chapter 10-11 T/F

92 terms by Jiquilpan

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F

The epimysium, endomysium, and perimysium may all be continuous with ligaments.

F

Tendons are often continuous with the endosteum of bone tissue.

T

There are more than 600 muscles in the body.

T

When a muscle contracts, the bone moved is the bone of insertion.

F

The insertion is that point of attachment that does not move when the muscle contracts.

T

Tendons are continuous with the layer of connective tissue called the epimysium.

F

The direction of the fibers composing a muscle is insignificant to its function.

F

Tipping the head back on its atlas is an example of a third-class lever.

T

A bipennate arrangement of muscle fibers produces a strong contraction.

F

Muscles classified as antagonists oppose normal movement patterns.

F

Muscles often act singly as a prime mover.

T

In a lever system, the fixed pivot around which the rod moves is called the fulcrum.

F

A set of scales and a pair of scissors are both examples of second-class levers.

T

The gluteus muscles are examples of muscles that are named as a result of location.

T

In muscle terminology, the term rectus means straight.

F

Muscles usually originate distal to the point of insertion.

T

The muscles of facial expression are unique in that at least one of their points of attachment is to the deep layers of skin over the face or neck.

F

Contraction of the internal intercostal muscles elevates the ribs.

T

The deltoid is an example of a multifunction muscle.

T

The pelvic girdle differs from the shoulder girdle in that the pelvic girdle is essentially fixed.

F

Intrinsic foot muscles are responsible for movement of the ankle and foot.

T

The Achilles tendon is common to both the gastrocnemius and soleus.

T

The soleus muscle is responsible for plantar flexion.

F

The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles act as antagonists.

F

The maintenance of body posture depends only on skeletal muscles and bones.

T

Muscles maintain posture by the property of tonicity.

F

Because tonicity is present during sleep, muscle pull does not counteract the pull of gravity.

F

The circulatory system is responsible for muscle tone.

T

Poor posture puts abnormal strain on bones and may eventually produce deformities.

T

With aging, connective tissue replaces some muscle fibers, causing decreased muscle strength.

T

The respiratory, digestive, circulatory, excretory, and endocrine systems all contribute something toward the ability of muscles to maintain posture.

T

Myofibrils contain several sarcomeres lined up end to end.

T

Another name for muscle cells is muscle fibers.

F

Muscle cells have one nucleus and one mitochondrion.

T

Muscle fibers of skeletal muscle contain several nuclei.

T

A triad consists of a T tubule sandwiched between sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

F

The characteristics that allow muscles to function as they do are: excitability, contractility, extensibility, and regulation.

F

The cell membrane of a muscle fiber is called the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

T

The protein molecule that has heads jutting out for cross-bridging is myosin.

T

A neuromuscular junction is a type of connection called a synapse.

T

The sliding filament theory is the current model of muscle contraction.

T

Muscle fibers use creatine phosphate to restore their ATP population.

T

The all-or-none principle states that muscle fibers will contract with all possible force when stimulated to threshold, or they will not contract at all.

T

Hemoglobin carries oxygen in the red blood cell and myoglobin stores oxygen in the muscle fiber.

F

Anaerobic respiration is the first choice of the muscle cell for the production of ATP.

T

T tubules are perpendicular to muscle fibers.

F

Myosin filaments attach to the Z lines.

F

At rest, troponin covers the active sites on the actin molecules.

F

A compound that mimics the action of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction would cause muscles to become flaccid.

T

Myosin filaments interact with actin filaments during muscle contraction.

T

When sarcomeres shorten, myofibrils also shorten.

T

For continued, efficient nutrient catabolism by muscle fibers, both glucose and oxygen are required

F

Slow fibers are also called white fibers because they contain a low concentration of myoglobin.

T

A motor neuron plus the muscle fibers to which it attaches is called a motor unit.

F

The more precise the muscle movement, the greater the number of muscle fibers activated by a motor neuron.

T

Muscles contract more forcefully after they have contracted a few times.

F

Smooth, sustained contractions are called treppe.

F

In psychological muscle fatigue, an individual cannot contract his or her muscles.

F

Muscles with less than normal tone are described as spastic.

F

During an isotonic contraction, the tension produced by the myosin cross-bridges cannot overcome the load placed on the muscle.

T

The degree of a muscle's strength is influenced by many factors, including its metabolic condition and number of motor units recruited.

F

A tetanic contraction is stimulated by a single stimulus.

F

Skeletal muscle organs contract on the all-ornone principle.

T

Treppe is a steep increase in the strength of contractions that can be seen in a series of twitch contractions.

T

The type of contraction exhibited by normal skeletal muscles most of the time is called tetanus.

T

The study of muscle activity is called myography.

T

The graded strength principle states that skeletal muscles contract with varying degrees of strength at different times.

T

As resistance increases, the number of motor units needed to overcome that resistance has to increase.

F

Endurance training usually results in muscle hypertrophy.

T

Convulsions are abnormal, uncoordinated tetanic contractions of varying groups of muscles.

F

Cardiac muscle is similar to skeletal muscle in that both form strong, electrically coupled junctions with other fibers.

F

Fibrillation is a tetanic contraction of cardiac muscle.

F

T tubules are found in all type of muscle tissue.

T

In visceral smooth muscle, gap junctions join individual smooth muscle fibers into large, continuous sheets.

T

A hernia is a condition in which parietal peritoneum protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.

T

Femoral hernias are more prevalent in women than in men.

F

Muscle pain may also be referred to as muscular dystrophy.

T

Duchenne's (pseudohypertrophic) muscular dystrophy is the most common type of muscular dystrophy.

T

Inguinal hernias are more prevalent in men than in women.

T

Cramps are painful, voluntary muscle spasms.

F

The thin myofilament is myosin, while the thick myofilament is actin.

T

Skeletal muscle has a great ability to stretch.

T

A triplet of tubules-a T tubule sandwiched between sacs of sarcoplasmic reticulum - is termed a triad.

F

Actin, troponin, and tropomyosin are present on the thick myofilament.

T

One I band will reside within two sarcomeres.

F

Rigor mortis is caused because of damage done to the sarcolemma after death.

T

The cell membrane of a muscle fiber is called the sarcolemma.

F

Oxygen molecules in the sarcoplasm are bound to the troponin molecule.

F

The threshold principle states that muscle fibers will contract with all possible force when stimulated to threshold, or they will not contract at all.

F

Isometric contraction is a contraction in which the tone or tension within a muscle remains the same, but the length of the muscle changes.

F

The shorter a muscle prior to contraction, the more tension it will be able to generate.

T

Muscles with less tone than normal are described as flaccid.

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