"Open Door" policy
1899 US opens china
Naval commander who blasted Japanese shore
Japan catching up with the world Under the ruler Meiji
The DeLome Letter
Spanish ambassador Enrique DeLome writes a letter from Cuba to Spain. He says that McKinley is weak and just tries to make people happy. He calls him a would-be politician. This letter is made public in January, 1898, and due to the Yellow Journalism of the time, the tensions from the implications become huge deal to the President and the American people. This adds to the wishes for war with Spain.
The USS Maine is sunk in the Havana Harbor in February, 1898. This plays into Yellow Journalists who were able to sell war fever even more strongly to the people. (SPAIN SUNK OUR BOAT!)
The period around the Splendid Little War with Spain allowed for Pulitzer and Hearst to increase public outcry against Spanish activities by accentuating and exploiting events to seem more dramatic due to newspaper writings. Hearst even hires the artist Frederick Remington to draw the war, and when Remington says theres nothing to draw, Hearst says You provide the pictures...Ill provide the war.
Commodore Dewey/The Philippines
Teddy R suspected war as being probable, so he ordered the Asiatic Squadron led by Commodore George Dewey, which was made up of 4 boats, into position to attack the Philippines before declaration of war was made. We attack at 5 am on May 1st, and with the element of surprise (morning) and our powerful modern weaponry, (8 inch guns could fire a 250 lb projectile for 5 miles, could penetrate up to 3.5 in. armor) the Spanish dont stand a chance, even with us only scoring hits at 2.5. Within one morning, their entire navy is gone and only one of our men is lost (due to heatstroke.) American and Filipino forces are successful on land until August 1898, then fight each other until 1902.
Wrote the History of Standard Oil, which told of Rockefellers practices. A Muckraker devoted to examining and exposing abuses in the oil industry.
Wrote Shame Of the Cities, which told of unaddressed urban problems.
Wrote The Jungle, a gruesome picture of the meatpacking industry, which led to changes within the industry.
TR-Rule of Reason
TRs focus in domestic policies was on breaking up trusts and using a standard of fairness based on the public good. His dream was a country based on fairness.
TR focused on breaking up trusts (monopolies) in railroads (Northern Securities case) and also meatpacking.
Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902
TR intervened to help settle the dispute in the strike rather than breaking it, which was a sign that there were many more labor-aware people since TR was able to break the pattern of politicians who looked the other way when big businesses abused workers, and he was still re-elected in his next term. People are beginning to understand the plight of labor.
National Conservation Congress
TR believed in managed growth, not preservation but Conservation. He had lived in the West and so understood the needs (irrigation, supply, etc.) He believed in saving the forests for posterity. Began the National Conservation Congress in 1908 to promote planned resource management and growth. Gifford Pinchot was the chief forester, and John Muir was a powerful influence. NCC expanded national forests and protected areas, and sought balance with developers.
Chief Forester for the NCC. Friend of Teddy Roosevelts. Was forced out of office when Taft took the side of Richard Ballinger in a clash over land policy.
Influence on TR and the NCC. Spent time out West so he was passionate and experienced. Painted and wrote. Had first-hand knowledge. Naturalist.
Big Stick Diplomacy
Speak softly, carry a big stick Not overbearing/telling people what to do/running the whole world, but subtly letting people know the power we have. (Example: the voyage of the GWF) If people know we are prepared to own them, theyll be intimidated and we wont face a lot of trouble.
TR threatened a use of Americas navy to stop Germans from taking over any Venezuelan ports (1902). Prompted, the Kaiser agrees to mediation with the Venezuelan government. (TRs speak softly and carry a big stick and White Fleet combines to win a disagreement. Mahans vision comes to life.) Because of this, TR states Americas Moral obligation to keep the affairs of the Americas peacefulknown as the Roosevelt Corollary (addition) to the Monroe Doctrine. In other words, if anyone has to interfere between countries, it will be the US.
Panama "Revolution" of 1903
Panama was part of Colombia, the U.S. proposed to pay Colombia to build the Panama Canal, but they rejected the offer. TR then helps Panama revolt and pay them for the Canal.
TR loved and selected him to be next president. Won election but not liked by people. Pledged new tariff but made it a higher one, Progressives were not happy. TR was not proud of him. Because he was so bad, TR wants to come back to presidency.
Wrote "Influence of Sea Power upon History." His influence led to Great White Fleet.
Great White Fleet
Mahans writing coming to life. There were enough ships to be a 7 miles long row of ships. 14 month cruise around the life and would stop and fire at certain places to show how powerful they were. Affects "speak softly and carry a big stick."
Joe Cannon was Speaker of the house. Therefore he had control what was on agenda. He was a part of the agenda committee as well, so he had full power over what was to be talked about. Progressive Republicans wanted him out because he had too much power. Taft refuses to get involved with this and did not want any part in it.
Payne Aldrich Tariff
Both wrote a tariff that was going to help consumer. It was changed 847 times and was completely not what it started out to be. Favored high tariff..Bad for consumers, good for business...Taft favored it
Pinchot Ballenger Controversy
TF was very concerned with conservation of land. Pinchot was chief forester who was in office with TR. Ballenger came in with Taft and did not agree and wanted to harvest lumber. Pinchot writes letter to TR about how bad Ballenger is and what does not what Pinchot to.
1. TRs campaign. TR complained on the way Taft treated Progressive movement. Breaks with Taft domestic policies. He returns to US in 1910. TR makes Taft as the "devil", TR "savior." TR says he is "Healthy as a Bull Moose."
2. TR becomes very progressive at this time: women's rights, labor laws, disability laws, social security, 8 hour day
3. Shrink shoots TR while out making speeches and still determined to make speech. He spoke anyways.
4. Debs won in jail with 1000000 votes.
Ideals of TR- Property is subject to the general right of the community. TRs stance in this campaign--#2 above. Loses some support in this
1. Wrote "Promise of American Life" (1909)
2. Influenced TR with his ideas for New Nationalism- more money for education, society "brotherhood of mankind"
3. TR IS GETTING VERY PROGRESSIVE. (socialism? Comm?)
1. After Taft into Wilson. Wilson is socialist in domestic policies.
2. He was the biggest influence on Wilsons "New Freedom", Wilson breaks up trust because of him, wrote Wilson to break up trusts and regulating competition (socialism), big business is a problem but so is a big government
3. Became first Jew to be Supreme Court.
1. Wilson's domestic policies, good relationship with Congress, Congress passed everything he said—Set precedent for all presidents to introduce new things to congress
2. Idealist and hard headed. Build up economy and build up business.
Federal Reserve Act
Wilson set this up, met in middle of night with 12 bankers to feed money or take out of bank to help economy; Controls amount of $$ in the USA and control interest rates
1. Income tax- make more money, taxed more money
2. Progressive idea (Fair)
1. U.S. Senators chosen by committees
2. Progressive idea
Clayton Anti Trust Act (1914)
Allows unions to organize; Does not give the right to strike though; considered the "Magna Carta" of labor (taking power away from the rich, given to the people)
"He kept us out of War"
1. Wilson's 2nd campaign slogan
2. As soon as he was re-elected, we go to WAR
3. He didn't want to go to war because he didn't want to alienate immigrants (4 million Irish American, 8 million German American)
Charles Evan Hughes
1. Before the war a boat sunk by Germany, not worth the time
2. "Theres such thing as a man being too proud to fight"
Unrestricted Sub Warfare
1. Germans (Jan 1917)
2. Sinking of the Lusitania
3. Bomb without letting other one know
1. Intercepted by Germany; "The American's mean nothing"
2. Propose Mexican alliance to conquer America; Goes public and Americans hear and then want WAR!!