The study of planet earth
Continents that slowly move over earth's surface
A break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other
The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced, a divergent plate boundary
November 1963, in Iceland there began something hiss & bubble. There was an eruption beneath the ocean, steam and ash bursted in the sky.
Expain how scientists learned about earthquakes that happened hundres/thousands of years ago.
By written records but the real story is written in the rocks and soil. Scientists have to find a good site in order to get good examples to study.
Explain and give examples of constructive forces
These forces shape the surface/examples buliding a school and Surtsey
Explain and give examples of destructive forces
These forces are those that slowly wear away/example-ocean waves that wear away Surtsey shoreline
List and describe 3 layers of the Earth
crust - is a layer of rock that forms Earth's outer skin, Mantle - a layer of hot rocks, Core - Earths core consists of two papers - a liquid outer core and a solid inner core
a measure of how much mass there is in a substance
Describe background of Pangea
All continents had joined together in a single landmass and have drifted apart since
Who came up with the Pangea theory
List & describe 3 main forms of evidence that support the origin of Pangea
Landform-Mountains and other features provided the evidence, Fossils - help to support argument for continental drift, Climate - Spitsbergen is a island covered with ice and has a harsh polar climate
Explain why the Pangea theory was rejected at first by most geologists
Wegener couldn't identify the continental drift and they wanted new explanations of what caused continents and mountains to form.
Explain the idea of sea-floor speading
Hess realized that the sea floor spreads apart both sides of the mid ocean ridge as new crust is added
Who came up with the sea-floor spreading idea?
How did the sea spreading idea help prove Wegener's theory of continental drift?
Molten material, magnetic stripes and drilling samples
Describe the 3 main forms of evidence that support the idea of sea floor spreading
Molten material- erupting along the mid-ocean ridge, Magnetic stripes- studied patterns in the rocks of the ocean floor, they found more support for sea floor spreading, drilling sample - final proof of sea floor spreading came from rock sample obtained by drilling into the floor
Plate tectonic theory
formation movement & subduction of earth's paltes