huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
revolution in France between 1789 and 1800; resulted in overthrow of Bourbon monarch and old regimes; ended with establishment of French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte; source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.
political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; advocated broader voting rights than liberals; in some cases advocated outright democracy; urged reforms in favor of the lower classes.
French Revolution of 1830
second rebellion against Bourbon monarch; essentially a liberal movement resulting in the creation of a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.
series of changes in economy of Western Europe between 1740 and 20th century; stimulated by rapid population growth, increase in agriculture productivity, commercial revolution of 17th century, and development of new means of transportation; in essence involved technological change and the application of machines to the process of production.
not to be confused with the fortified ports of the commercial revolution; intensification of process of production at single sites during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and firmer discipline.
French Revolution of 1848
overthrew the monarch established in 1830; briefly established a democratic republic; failure of the republic led to the reestablishment of the French Empire under Napoleon III in 1850.
leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics.
American Civil War
fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the united States and reunification in North and South.
socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions.
biologist who developed theory of evolution of species (1859); argued that all living species evolved into their present form through the ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full or part time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution.
Bourbon monarch of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution; eventually became general; led a coup that ended the French Revolution and established the French Empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815.
political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe in the 19th century; often allied with one of other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.
produced Belgian independence from the Dutch; established a liberal constitutional monarchy.
devised a steam engine in 1770's during the Industrial Revolution that could be used for production; steam engine was utilized for textile industries, mining, and railroads.
workers in Britain (1810-1820) who responded to replacement of human labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy the machines; named after a mythical leader, Ned Ludd.
discoverer of germs; discovery led to more conscientious sanitary regulation by the 1880s.
Count Camillio di Cavour
architect of Italian unification in 1858 formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmonteste king.
The social question
issues relating to repressed classes in Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution, particularly workers and women; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access for professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in Western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in 1960s.
developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; after 1900 issued theory of relativity.
alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783; resulted in independence for former British colonies and eventual formation of the United States of America.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
adopted during the liberal phase of the French Revolution; stated the fundamental equality of all French citizens; later became a political source for other liberal movements.
political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
rebellion in Greece against the ottomans empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
Reform bill of 1832
legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
shift to low birth rate, low infant death rate, stable population; first emerged in Western Europe and U.s. in late 19the century.
attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during the 1840's; demands for reform beyond the Reform act of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed.
alliance among Britain, Russia, and France at the outset of the 20th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Otto von Bismarck
conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under Prussian king in 1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes.
German socialist of the mid-19th century; blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship.
Mass leisure culture
an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theatre, vacation trips, and team sports.
Viennese physician; developed theories of the workings of the human unconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses.