Problem Solving Coping (External)
Deal directly with a stressor to decrease or eliminate it.
Emotion - Focus Coping (internal)
Managing one's emotional reaction to a stressful situatio
Health and Stress Management
Psychologist exploring how to cognitively appraise potential stress, cope with perceived threats, and make use of 8 resources for stress management.
Life Change s
Change of any kind of life style that require some adjustment in behavior or life style.
Catastrophic events that effects a large group of people
State of ongoing stress which the person cannot relax at any time.
Stress that revolves around work from unemployment, problem at work, or working too much.
Small problems that accumulate which annoy and irritate people.
When thing don't go as planned, or gets in our way.
Conflict (three types)
When you are forced to make an undesirable decision.
Approach - Approach
When you are forced to pick one, when both option sounds good.
Approach - Avoidance
When you are forced to pick one option even though both has their equal amount of positive and negative.
Avoidance - Avoidance
When you have to pick one of the two options, even though none of them are desirable.
General Adaptation Syndrome
When you body goes through 3 - stage reaction to stress.
Primary Secondary Appraisal
How we cope with stress, by distinguishing how challenging it is and how we can use our available resources to find a solution.
Study of age related changes in behavior and mental processes.
Teratogens and their effects
Alcohol and Nicotine are one of the most common agents to cause damage during parental development.
Ability - Knows language and Symbols
Limits- Reversibility, Egocentrism, Animistic Thinking
By fixing or developing new theories or ideas to existing ones.
Using the basic forms of schema by using similar actions and ideas into somethings new.
Organized patterns of thinking that help us interact in our environment.
Abilities - Uses senses and motor skills to explore and develop Cognitively
Limits - What they don't see, it doesn't exist.
Abilities - Less egocentric and capable of true logical thinking
Limits - Thinking is twisted to objects and events
-Can't think outside the box and make theories.
Abilities - Can think outside the box and make and make theories about things.
when exposed to the stranges the infant seeks closeness and contact with mother.
Anxious - Avoidant
Child does not seek close contact with mother and shows little emotion when mother depart or returns.
Anxious ambivalent attachment
Becomes very Upset when mother leaves the room when mother return the child seek closeness the squirms angrily away.
Moya really wants to study so she can pas her psychology exam tomorrow, but she also wants to go out with her new boyfriend tonight. This is an example of _____ conflict.
Emotion Focus Coping
Logan rationalized that not making the basketball team would give him more time to focus on his studies and finish college sooner. This is an example of ______.
________ plays a critical role in the long-term effects of stress, and is the most common measure of stress.
General Adaptation Syndrome
A physiological alarm reaction, followed by resistance, and ending with exhaustion is known as _____.
What is the study of age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death called?
When five-Month old jessica learns that mommy continues to exist even when she is quietly resting in another room, Jessica has developed _____.
Once a child can perform mental operations on concrete objects, and understand the principles of conservation and reversibility, she has reached Piaget's ______ Stage.
Germinal, Embryonic, Fetal
Prenatal development includes three stages, These are:
Which of these is NOT teratogen?
Eleven Month Old Kevin is till unable to pull himself up and hold onto furniture. This shows he has a delay in:
Law and Order
The excuse of officers in Wold War 2, the Vietnam War, and the war in Bosnia that "i was just following orders," is an example of which stage of moral development?
Trust vs. mistrust; industry vs. inferiority
During the ___ stage of psychosocial development, individuals decide whether the world is good and satisfying or painful and unrewarding whereas during the ______ stage, individuals develop a sense of competency or insecurity.
Identity versus role confusion
Robert is an adolescent who is sullen and withdrawn. He doesn't seem to know where he fits in society. As a result, Robert may have difficulty resolving the _____ developmental stage.
In the drive reduction theory, motivation decreases once ____ occurs.
Curiosity is another form of _______motive.
According to maslow's view of motivation, if you haven't eaten all day, your thoughts will be MOST focused on your ____.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Your best friend just won the lottery. Even though you may experience envy, you also cannot help feeling excited along with him because you are both grinning from ear to ear. This reaction supports the ______ regarding the origin and intensification of emotion.
cortisol and epinephrine
The two chemicals released during the fight or flight stress response that are associated with the development of heart disease are _____.
_____ parents set firm limits, encourage increasing levels of responsibility, and are sensitive and caring toward their children, whereas _____ parents value unquestioning obedience and mature responsibility, and remain detached and aloof from their children.
After exposure to a severe and prolonged stressor, illness and death may occur in the _____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome
Martino believes he can bring his "C" up to an "A" or "B" next time.
According to the cognitive theory of motivation, which of the following students is MOST likely to study hard for their next psychology exam?
far enough away from the basket for it to be challenging, but close enough to allow for some successes
Harold has a high need for achievement. Based on this information, you can most accurately predict that given an opportunity to throw ten free shots from anywhere on a basketball court, Harold will stand _____.
Ishaya was startled awake by a major earthquake. He immediately felt frightened, broke out in a cold sweat, and jumped out of bed to run for cover-all in the same instant. This description of Ishaya's experience BEST fits the ______ theory of emotion.
You just stuffed yourself with a hot dog, a large tub of popcorn, and a box of Milk Duds while watching a movie. When you come out of the theater, you smell the cinnamon buns across the mall and decide to get one even though you are full. This can BEST be explained by _____.
Morality may be prewired and evolutionarily based. Evolution may have provided us with biologically based provisions for moral acts.
He developed a highly influential model of moral development called "moral stories'.
Kohlberg's three major criticisms
Moral reasoning versus behavior, Cultural differences, Gender bias
Preconventional (Stages 1&2)
Birth to adolescence- Moral judgment is self centered. What is right is what one can get away with or what is personally satisfying. Morality is based on rewards, punishments, and the exchange of favors.
Conventional (Stages 3&4)
Adolescence and young adulthood - Moral judgments are based on compliance with rules and values of society. Good child orientation - Obeys rules to get approval. Law and order orientation-obeys laws because they maintain the social order.
Postconventional ( Stages 5&6)
Adulthood - Moral judgements based on personal standards for right and wrong. Social contract orientation - Moral reasoning reflects belief in democratically established laws. Universal-ethics orientation - Moral reasoning reflects individual conscience.
Three temperament styles (Chess & Thomas)
Easy children - happy most of the time
Difficult children - moody, easily frustrated, tense and overreactive
Slow-to-warm-up - mild responses,somewhat shy and withdrawn and needed time to adjust to new experiences or people
An individuals innate disposition or behavioral style and characteristic emotional response.
Stage 1 Trust versus mistrust (Birth to age 1)
Which of Erikson's Eight States of Psychosocial Development is when infants learn to trust or mistrust their caregivers and the world based on whether or not their needs are met?
Stage 2 Autonomy versus shame and doubt (ages 1-3)
Which of Erikson's Eight States of Psychosocial Development is when toddlers start to assert their sense of independence?
Stage 3 Initiative versus guilt (ages 3-6)
Which of Erikson's Eight States of Psychosocial Development is when preschoolers learn to initiate activities and develop self confidence and a sense of social responsibility?
Stage 4 Industry versus inferiority (ages 6-12)
Which of Erikson's Eight States of Psychosocial Development is when elementary school aged children who succeed in learning new, productive life skills develop a sense of pride and competence?
Stage 5 Identity versus role confusion (ages 12-20)
Which of Erikson's Eight States of Psychosocial Development is when adolescents develop a coherent and stable self definition by exploring many roles and deciding who or what they want to be in terms of career, attitudes,. etc.
Stage 6 Intimacy versus isolation (early adulthood)
Which of Erikson's Eight States of Psychosocial Development is when young adults form lasting, meaningful relationships, which help them develop a sense of connectedness and intimacy with others.
Stage 7 Generativity versus stagnation (middle adulthood)
Which of Erikson's Eight States of Psychosocial Development is when the challenge for middle-aged adults is to be nurturant of the younger generation. Failing to meet this challenge leads to self-indulgence.
Stage 8 Ego integrity versus despair (late adulthood)
Which of Erikson's Eight States of Psychosocial Development is when older adults reflect on their past? If this reflection reveals a life well-spent,the person experiences self-satisfaction. If not, the person experiences regret.
What is a set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior usually toward some goal?
Which theory of motivation emphasizes inborn, genetic factors in motivation? Factors are unlearned and the same across all species.
Biological: Drive Reduction
Which theory of motivation is when a biological need creates a drive toward behavior that will satisfy the original need? Once the need is met, a state of balance (homeostasis) is restored and motivation decreases.
Biological: Optimal Arousal
Which theory of motivation is when organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal that maximizes their performance?
Which theory of motivation results from external stimuli that "pull" the organism in certain directions?
Which theory of motivation is explaining things to ourselves? It is or how we interpret or think about our own or others' actions. For example, you get a good grade on a test. You interpret that grade as you studied hard, you "lucked out" or you found the book so interesting that studying came easy.
Biopsychosocial: Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
Which theory of motivation is where lower biological motives ( such as hunger and first) must be satisfied before advancing to higher needs (such as belonging and self-fulfillment)
What is it called when your motivation comes from internal, personal satisfaction from a task or activity?
What is it called when your motivation comes from external rewards or threats of punishment?
Which theory says that emotions and physiological changes occur at the same time? For example, I'm crying and feeling sad at the same time..
Which theory says that an experience of emotion results from physiological changes, rather than being their cause? For example, I feel sad because I am crying. Meaning each emotion is distinct.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Which theory says that movements of the facial muscles produce and /or intensify our subjective experience of emotion? For example, you see a bear, the brain activates facial movements and these facial changes then initiate and intensify emotions.
Schacter's Two-Factor Theory
Which theory says that emotion depends on two things - physiological arousal and cognitive labeling of that arousal? For example, crying at a wedding is interpreted as joy or happiness. Crying at a funeral is interpreted as sadness.