Nursing 208 Test 2 ADVERSE and Psychological EFFECTS OF IMMOBILITY ON BODY SYSTEMS

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table 11.6 and 11.7 from Carpenito 14th edition nursing diagnosis

Cardiac

Decreased myocardial performance
Decreased aerobic capacity
Decreased heart rate and stroke volume
Decreased oxygen uptake

Circulatory

Venous stasis
Orthostatic intolerance
Dependent edema
Decreased resting heart rate
Reduced venous return

Respiratory

Increased intravascular pressure
Stasis of secretions
Impaired cilia
Drying of sections of mucous membranes
Decreased chest expansion
Slower, more shallow respirations

Musculoskeletal

Muscle atrophy
shortening of muscle fiber (contracture)
decreased strength/tone (e.g., back)
decreased bone density
joint degeneration
fibrosis of collagen fibers

Metabolic/hematopoietic

Decreased nitrogen excretion
decreased tissue heat conduction
decreased glucose tolerance
insulin resistance
decreased red blood cells
decrease Sebago phagocytosis
hypercalcemia
changes circadian release of hormones (e.g. insulin, epinephrine)
anorexia
decreased metabolic rate
obesity
elevated creatine levels

Gastrointestinal

Constipation

Genitourinary

Urinary stasis
urinary calculi
urinary retention
inadequate gravitational force

Integumentary

Decreased capillary flow
tissue acidosis to necrosis

Neurosensory

Reduced innervation of nerves
Decreased near vision
Increase auditory sensitivity

Psychological

Increased attention
negative change in self-concept
fear, anger
rapid mood changes
depression
hostility

Socialization

Changing roles
social isolation

Growth and development

Dependency

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