Chapter 9: Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight

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Study guide questions and answers.

Risks of being underweight

Starvation
(Die first during siege or famine. Disadvantage in hospital)

Risks of being overweight

Chronic diseases

Risks of central obesity

(Fat deep within central abdominal area)
Diabetes
Heart disease
Hypertension
Gallbladder stones
Stroke
Some types of cancer

Metabolic Fitness

1. Normal blood pressure
2. Normal blood lipids
3. Normal blood glucose and insulin levels

BMR

Basal Metabolism Rate

Components of energy expenditure/ affect BMR

Age
Height
Growth
Body Composition
Fever
Stress
Environmental Temperature
Fasting/ starvation
Malnutrition
Thyroxine

BMI

Weight (kg) /height (in)
Two drawbacks:
1. How much of that is fat?
2. Where is the fat located?

Other ways to assess body fatness

GOLD STANDARD:
Underwater weighing
DEXA: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
Air displacement

LIMITED RELIABILITY:
Bioelectrical impedance
Skinfold test-

BMI + Weight Cirumferance

Helps analyze visceral fatness, can help identify risk for chronic disease

Signals for food intake regulation (and factors that affect them)

Hormones- ghrelin, our hunger drive is greater than our satiety drive.
Sensory nerve signals- we eat more if bigger portions

Body response to moderate weight loss

Body will gradually use up fuel/fat stores if a person will:
-Exercise appropriately
-moderately restrict calories
-consume balanced diet

Body response to feasting

Carbs- to glucose, to liver and muscle, rest as fat
Fat- fatty acids to fat stores
Protein- amino acids and extra nitrogen lost in urine

Body response to fasting

(Body draws on stores)
-Liver and muscle glycogen-stores broken down to glucose for energy
-Body fat stores- fatty acids to energy

Body response if fast continues beyond glycogen depletion

Body protein- broken down to amino acids, glucose/nitrogen/ketone bodies for ENERGY
Body fat- broken down to fatty acids to ketone bodies and ENERGY.

Body response to weight gain

Excess protein, minerals often excreted. Most extras stored as excess GLYCOGEN or FAT.

Healthy strategies for weight management

Control in:
Diet
Physical activity
Behavior modification

Realistic target, Small-step goals, keep records, plan diet, adequate diet, portion sizes, use concept of energy density.

Pros and Cons of Liposuction:

Takes away fat fast, but if it comes back it often looks even worse. Doesn't bring benefits that follow weight loss.

Pros and Cons of Gastric Bypass

Dramatic and lasting weight loss
Rapid relief from disease risk

Surgery complications
Bone loss/calcium metabolism issues

Pros and Cons of Obesity Medications

Often good if prescribed by doctor

If not legit, can have really bad ingredients and side effects
Even legit can only help while taking them, not long-term

Naturally Healthy Weight

Metabolic Fitness + Comfortable participation in daily activities

Characteristics of Healthy Paradigm:

-Value self and others for more than physical appearance.
-Never use degrading descriptions of your body
-Become active because you like it
-Seek help from friends and family
-Don't diet to lose weight
-Follow USDA guidlines
-Fight weight descrimination

Anorexia

-Perfectionistic tendencies
-Strict control of food
-Extreme starvation

Bulimia

-Binge eating
-Vomiting and purging
-Morbid fear of becoming fat

Binge Eating Disorder

Similar to bulimia but without vomiting or purging after.

Female Athlete Triad

Eating disorder- Amenohhrea- Osteoporosis

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