Pharmacology Chapter 22

24 terms by CM7170 

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Anticonvulsants

Used to reduce the number or severity of seizures in epileptic patients

Epilepsy (Seizures)

A recurrent paroxysmal disorder of brain function characterized by sudden attacks of altered consciousness. Cause is idiopathic

Epilepsy Seizure Treatment

Based on: 1. Type 2. Severity 3. Cause

Seizure Disorders (3 types)

1. Generalized 2. Partial 3. Unclassified Tx: 1. Dilanton Tegretol

Generalized Seizures

1. Grand Mal (tonic-clonic) 2. Absence (Petit Mal) Tx: Dilanton

Grand Mal Seizure (tonic-clonic)

Loss of consciousness w/convulsing, lasting (2-5 minutes)

Absence Seizure (Petit Mal) 10 - 30 seconds

Patient is not aware of you (10 - 30 seconds) make odd or repetitive movements. This is the beginning of the seizure

Absence Epilepsy (Petit Mal) Phase & Tx

Muscles state to contract "violent shaking" eyes roll back Tx: 1. Klonopin 2. Dilantin

Dilantin

Medication makes patient sleepy, dizzy, double vision. Dose is adjusted based on patient response "see what works for patient"

Phycomotor Epilepsy (Partial Seizures)

Phycomotor Epilepsy or Temporal lobe seizures Partial seizures w/complex symptomology. Caused by a lesion in the temporal lob of the brain

Unilateral seizures

Affect only one side

Mixed Seizures

patterns combining more than one type

Seizure Tx

1. Dilantin, phenobarbital or valproic acid 2. Tegretol

Tegretol (Cautions)

Do not consume grapefruit juice while taking this drug it potentiates action & can increase risk of serious adverse effects

Seizures (Grand Mal) 2-5 min

1. Tonic-clonic Phase: person losses consciousness (freeze) 2. Tongue get caught - Muscles start to contract followed by violent shaking, eyes rolling back in head

Febrile convulsions (children)

Tx: phenobarbital alone

Anticonvulsant (Idiopathic)

Impaired motor activity or sensory impairment. Tx: 1. Tegretol XR (extended release tabs) 2. 2nd generation Neurontin

Tegretol

Is for phycomotor (Partial or mixed seizures)

Dilantan

For Grand Mal, Psycomotor or Focal Seizures; frequently combined w/phenobarbital

Neurontin

For Partial Seizures

Antiparkinsonian Drugs

Tx: Sinemet

Alzheimer's Disease (Dementia)

Tx - Aricept There is no cure. Tx is given to try to slow it down. A devastating progressive decline in cognitive function, having a gradual onset (60-90 y.o.) followed by increasingly severe impairment in social & occupational functioning

Cognex

First drug approved for Alzheimer's, but associated with hepatotoxicity

Parkinson's Disease

A chronic neurological disorder characterized by: 1. slowly spreading muscle tremors 2. regitidy & muscle weakness 3. a shuffling gait There is no cure and Tx is given to relieve symptoms & maintain mobility

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