Chapter 38: The Eisenhowever Era

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Senator Joseph McCarthy

Senator who was elected based on his war-hero merits. He was an anti-communist who caused an uproar in America that damaged the traditions of fair-play and free speeach. He created an atmosphere of suspcion and fear.

Emmit Till

A 14 year old boy who was lynched by a Mississippi mob in 1955 for simling at a white woman.

Sweatt v. Painter

Ruled by Thurgood Marshall. It stated that separate professional schools for blacks failed to meet the test of equality.

Rosa Parks

A college-educated black seamstress who made history in Montgomery, AL. She boarded a bus and sat in the "white only" section. She was arrested for violating the Jim Crow statues and sparked a yearlong black boycott of the city buses.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

A boycott of the city buses inspired by Rosa Parks bold move for eaulity. It served notice throughout the whole wouth because blacks no longer wanted to submit to the absurdities and indignities of segregation.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

A paster at the Montgomery Dexter Avenue Baptist Church who was devoted to the Civil Rights Revolution. He had great oratorical skill, much passion for biblical and constitutional conceptions of justice and non-violent principles of Mohandas Gandhi.

Earl Warren

Chief Justice who broke the path for Civil Rights progress. He was known for his acive judicial intervention in previously taboo social issues. He rightly stepped up to confront important social issues because the Congress had abdicated this responsibilities by refusing to deal with them.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

1954, ruled that segregation in the public schools was inherntly unequal and thus unconsititional. It reveresed the Plessy v. Ferguson "separate but equal" clause.

Orval Faubus

The governor of Arkansas who moblized the National Guard to prevent nine black students from enrolling in Little Rock's Central High School. Eisenhower sent troops to escort these children to their classes.

Civil Rights Act

"The mildest civil rights bill possible". It set up a permanent Civil Rights Commion to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized federal injunctions to pretect voting rights.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Formed by Martin Luther King Jr., it aimed to mobilize the vast power of the black churchs on behalf of black rights.

Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

(SNZZ-"snick") Formed by Southern lack students in order to give more focus and force to the efforts of the "ins".

Interstate Highway Act

Public works project of 1956 that built 42 thousnad miles of sleek, fast motorways for $27 billion. It created coutless construction jobs and speeded sububanization of America. It offered benefits to the trucking/oil/automobile industries while inhibiting the rails. It further caused problems in air quality and energy consumption and had disatrous consequences for cities while moving business to the suburbs.

John Foster Dulles

Secretary of State who promised to stem the red-tide and roll back gaines while liberating captive peoples. He also promised to balance the budget by cutting military spending.

Nikita Khrushechev

New Soviet premier, after Stalin. He rudely rejected Ike's proposals for peace at the Geneva summit conference in 1955.

Ho Chi Minh

The vietnamese leader who orignally tried to appeal personally to Woodrow Wilson to support self-determination for the peoples of Southeast Asia. He later became communist.

Warsaw Pact

Eastern European countries and the Soviets signed this pact creating a red military counterwieght to the newly bolstered NATO forces in the West.

Sputnik I and II

Soviet rockets sent to space on 1957. Disrupted American confidence in education and scientific discoveries. Also arose fear in Americans for missles.

Kitchen debate

Between Nixon and Khrushchev where each met in the American National Exhibition in Moscow, on July 24, 1959 to present cultural differnces in order to undesrtand one another. However both ended up trying to impress the other and debating the effectiveness of Capitalism vs. Communism.

The Feminie Mystique-Betty Friedan

Feminist book written by Betty Friedan that focused and fueled women's feelings in 1963. It was a runaway best-seller and a classic protest of feminist proest literature that launched the modern women's movement. It aroused and educated women who applauded her indictment of the stiffling boredom of suburban housewifery.

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