Taxonomy/Microorganisms Test Review Sheet

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Period 3, PAP Biology Mrs. Hirsch

What is the role of bacteria as decomposers?

To break down the nutrients in dead matter and the atmosphere.

How do archaebacteria differ from eubacteria?

Lack peptidoglycan in cell walls, have different membrane lipids, and the DNA sequences of key archaebacterial genes are more like those of eukaryotes than those of eubacteria.

How can bacteria be helpful to living things?

Producers that capture energy by photosynthesis, while others are decomposers that break down the nutrients in dead matter and the atmosphere.

How can bacteria cause harm to living things?

Cause disease

Characteristics of bacteria?

Prokaryotic cell type, cell walls with peptidoglycan, unicellular and can be autotrophic or heterotrophic.

What is used to fight bacterial infections?

Antibiotics

What is used to prevent viruses?

Immunization/Vaccines

Autotrophic

Organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds

Heterotrophic

Organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes

Eukaryotic

Organism whose cells contain nuclei

Prokaryotic

A single-celled organism lacking a nucleus

Unicellular

Single-celled

Multicellular

Contains more than one cell

How do bacteria reproduce?

Binary Fission, Conjugation, or Spore Formation

Binary Fission

When a bacterium has grown so that is has doubled in size, replicates DNA, and divides in half.

Conjugation

When a hollow bridge forms between two bacterial cells, and genes move from one cell to another.

Spore Formation

When growth conditions become unfavorable and bacterium form spores, which germinate and begin to grow.

Why are viruses not considered living?

Not made up of cells, have no cell parts, do not grow and develop, and do not respond to their environment.

What do viruses need in order to reproduce?

Host cell

What is the major component of modern vaccines?

Weakened pathogen

Lytic Cycle

Attachment to cell, Penetration (injection) of viral DNA or RNA, Replication (Biosynthesis) of new viral proteins and nucleic acids, Assembly (Maturation) of the new viruses, Release of the new viruses into the environment (cell lyses).

Lysogenic Cycle

Phage DNA is injected into the host cell, Viral DNA joins the host DNA forming a prophage, when an activation signal occurs, the phage DNA starts replicating, Viral DNA may stay inactive in host cell for long periods of time, Replicated during each binary fission, over time, many cells form containing the prophages.

What do both a living cell and a virus have in common?

Viruses Reproduce, evolve and mutate, and have limited movement.

How does HIV increase the danger of secondary infections?

Ability to become dormant inside the cell, called latent or lysogenic viruses.

Lysogenic (Latent) Viruses

Remain inactive for long periods of time, later activating to produce new viruses in response to some external signal.

Taxonomy

Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name.

Binomial Nomenclature

Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name.

Why are scientific names used instead of common names?

Accurately and uniformly name organisms, prevent misnomers, and use the same language for all names.

Taxon groups in order.

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.

What are the six kingdoms?

Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia.

Eubacteria

Prokaryote, Cell Walls with peptidoglycan, Unicellular, Auto/Hetero.

Archaebacteria

Prokaryote, Cell Walls without peptidoglycan, Unicellular, Auto/Hetero.

Protista

Eukaryote, Cell Walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts, most unicellular; some colonial, some multicellular, Auto/Hetero.

Fungi

Eukaryote, Cell Walls of chitin, most multicellular; some unicellular, Hetero.

Plantae

Eukaryote, Cell Walls of cellulose; chloroplasts, multicellular, Auto.

Animalia

Eukaryote, No cell walls or chloroplasts, multicellular, Hetero.

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