Endocrine Lecture 23

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32 terms

hypothalamus

reveives input from cortex, thalamus, limbic system & internal organs

hypothalamus

provides a link between the external and internal environment and the endocrine system

hypothalamus

controls the anterior pituitary gland with different releasing & inhibiting hormones

hypothalamus

releases other hormones directly through the posterior pituitary

somatotrophs

secrete human Growth Hormone (anterior pituitary)

thyrotrophs

secrete Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (anterior pituitary)

lactotrophs

secrete Prolactin (anterior pituitary)

gonadotrophs

secrete Follicle Stimulating Hormone and luteinizing Hormone (anterior pituitary)

corticotrophs

secrete Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (anterior pituitary)

hypothalamus

Releases Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)

hypothalamus

Releases Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone (GHIH or Somatostatin)

hypothalamus

Releases Gonadotropic Releasing Hormone (GnRH)

hypothalamus

Releases Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH)

hypothalamus

Releases Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)

hypothalamus

Releases Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone

HGH

Target cells are liver, skeletal muscle, cartilage, bone

HGH

Within target cells increases synthesis of insulin-like growth factors that act locally or enter bloodstream

HGH

Insulin-like growth factors: -Increase cell growth and cell division by increasing the uptake of amino acids and synthesis of protein
-Stimulate lipolysis in adipose tissue so fatty acids are used for ATP
-decrease use of glucose for ATP production by most body cells so blood glucose levels remain high enough to supply brain

GHRH

Stimuli for ---: Hypoglycemia, Deep sleep, Decreased fatty acids and increaesd amino acids in the blood, increased sympathetic stimulation

GHIH

Stimuli for ---: Hyperglycemia, REM sleep, Increased fatty acids and decreased amino acids in the blood, Obesity, Low levels of thyroid hormones, high levels of hGH

growth hormone releasing hormone

GHRH

growth hormone inhibiting hormone

GHIH

human growth hormone

hGH

insulin like growth factors

IGFs

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

FSH -- Gonadotropin releasing hormone, GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce FSH

FSH

In females: - stimulates secretion of estrogen - initiates the formation of follicle within the ovary
In males: Stimulates sperm production in testes

Luteinizing Hormone

GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce LH
Females: secretion of estrogen and progesterone, ovulation, formation of corpus lutem
Males: secretion of testosterone

Prolactin

Hypothalamus regulates lactotroph cells by secreting PRH and PIH (dopamine)
-causes milk production
-suckling reduces levels of hypothalamic inhibition and prolactin levels rise along with milk production

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

-Secreted by corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary
-Excessive levels of CRH from the hypothalamus increases MSH release from the anterior pituitary
-PIH inhibits MSH release
-Function unclear in humans but high levels increase skin pigmentation

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

-Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary to release ACTH
-ACTH stimulates release of glucocorticoids (mainly coritsol) from arenal cortex
-ACTH release is also stimulated by hypoglycemia, physical trauma, and IL-1

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

-Hypothalamus regulates thyrotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce TSH (thyrotropin)
-TSH stimulates the synthesis & secretion of T3 and T4 (thyroid hormones)
-Metabolic rate stimulated

Thyrotropin

Regulation of --- (TSH) Release:
-Hypothalamus releases thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
-TRH causes release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from anterior pituitary cells
-Thyroid gland cells activated to secrete more T3 & T4

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