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Nutrition

Which statement about vitamins is true?

Help regulate chemical reactions in the body

Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way

Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be

a fortified breakfast cereal

Megadoses are described as vitamin intake ___ times the human need to prevent deficiency

2-10

Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat soluble vitamins

After absorption, they are transported in t he bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue

Which fat-soluble vitamins are most toxic if consumed in excess amount over long periods of times

Vitamin A and E

Which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin a

Carotenoids can be converted into retinoids

Which of the following vitamins helps acne

Vitamin A

Which of the following is the best source of preformed Vitamin A

Liver

George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following should he choose?

Spinach

Which of the following is converted into Vitamin A in the body

Carotenoids

This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida

Folate/folic acid

All of the following are true about the toxicity of vitamin A except

one can experience toxic effects from consuming too much beta-carotene

The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because

it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to sun

Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of

Vitamin D

The most reliable source of Vitamin D in the diet is

fortified milk

Vitamin E functions as

an antioxidant

The main form of Vitamin E in the body is

alpha-tocopherol

A rich source of Vitamin E is

corn oil

The nutrient essential for synthesis in several blood clotting factors is

Vitamin K

In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the

kidneys

The B vitamins generally function as

antioxidants

Some niacin is formed in the body from

tryptophan

The vitamin that aids in activating fatty acids so they can yield energy is

pantothenic acid

Intestinal bacteria can make this B vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs

biotin

What vitamin plays an essential role in amino acid metabolism

pyridoxine

Vitamins involved in red blood cell synthesis are

vitamin b12 and folate

generally, good folate sources are

leafy green vegetables

The best option in ensuring adequate intake of vitamins and minerals is

a healthy diet rich in vitamins and minerals

Macrocytic anemia

Anemia characterized by the presence of abnormally large red blood cells

Hemolysis

Destruction of red blood cells

Erythrocytes

Mature red blood cells

Pernicious anemia

disorder that results from lack of vitamin b12 absorption

Rickets

disease characterized by poor mineralization of newly synthesized bones due to low calcium content and caused by vitamin D deficiency

Dementia

General loss or decrease in mental function

Osteomalacia

Adult form of rickets

Beriberi

Thiamin deficiency disorder characterized by muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and nerve degeneration

Intrinsic factor

Protein-like compound produced by the stomach that enhances vitamin b12 absorption

Xerophthalmia

Disease process caused by vitamin A deficiency that can cause blindness

Carotenoids

Pigment materials in fruit and vegetables that can be turned into vitamin A in the body

Dermatitis

skin condition commonly associated with niacin deficiency symptoms

Night blindness

Vitamin A deficiency in which the retina cannot adjust to low amounts of light

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