COM 100

Created by cnwise 

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91 terms

Fact of life

Groups are everywhere. Essential.

Primary Groups

Groups that provide members with a sense of belonging & affection(family&social groups)

Enhanced College Performance

Studying in small groups can enhance performance/grades

Enhanced Career Success

Organizations seek out individuals who work well with others

Enhanced Personal Life

Committees, nonprofit, community organizations

Advantages of Group Work

Groups make higher quality decisions that individuals (innovative ideas & social facilitation- people work harder & do better when others are around)

Disadvantages of Group Work

more time to make decisions, discussions can be less then satisfying due to dominance/withdrawal of members causing frustration

Small Group Communication

Small # of people(3-7) less diverse than a large group. Common purpose:meet to solve problems. Connection with each other.

Group Roles

Shared expectations groups members have regarding each individuals comm. behavior

Task Roles

Directly related to the accomplishment of group goals. Seeking, processing, evaluating info.

Initatior/Contributor

Proposes new ideas "How about if we look at.."

Information Seeker

Asks for info or clarification "How many instances of___occur each year?"

Opinion Seeker

Asks for opinions from other "How do you feel about...."

Information Giver

Provides facts, examples & other relevant evidence "my research shows.."

Opinion Giver

Offers beliefs or opinions "I'm often concerned about..."

Elaborator

Explains ideas, offers examples to clarify "If this action was taken__might not happen"

Coordinator

Shows relationships among ideas presented

Orienter

Summarizes what was discussed

Evaluator-critic

Judges evidence & conclusions

Energizer

Motivates group members

Procedure Technician

Performs logical tasks, arranging seats, hanging out papers

Recorder

Keeps a record of group activities

Relational Roles

Helps est. a groups social atmosphere EX)Encourage others to talk or mediate arguments

Encourager

Offers praise & acceptance of ideas "Great idea, tell us more"

Harmonizer

Mediates disagreement among group members

Compromiser

Attempts to resolve conflicts

Gatekeeper

Encourages less talkative contributions

Expediter

Tries to limit lengthy contributions

Standard Setter

Set standards & goals

Group Observer

Keeps records of process & uses the info to evaluate group procedures

Follower

Goes along with suggestions & ideas

Individual Roles

Focus more on individuals own interest & needs than the groups. Tend to be uninvolved, negative, aggressive.

Aggressor

Attacks other group members, takes credit for others ideas

Blocker

Generally negative & stubborn

Recognition Seeker

Calls attention to personal achievements

Self -confessor

Uses group as audience to report non related issues

Joker

Lacks involvement in groups process, distracts others

Dominator

Asserts control by manipulation

Help Seeker

Tries to gain sympathy

Special Interest Pleader

Works to serve individual need

Trait Theory

Leadership that suggest that leaders are born;innate

Functional Theory

Assumes leadership behaviors can be learned, when in need, a person from a group can step up

Style Theory

Leaders manner/style determines his success

Authoritarian

Takes charge, makes decisions, dictates strategies/work tasks

Democratic

Influenced by group input

Transformational Theory

Empowers group to work independently from leader by encouraging cohesion. Uses good comm. skills & inspiration messages to create a vision

Charismatic Leadership

Extremely confident leaders inspire unusual dedication to themselves by relying on strong personality & charm

Equal Participation

All groups members contribute

Consensus Decision Making Style

All members agree with decisions made

Cooperative Conflict Style

Manages conflict by intergration that others are valued & important

Problem Solving Agenda

Often conflicts are settle prematurely. Creating an agenda offers a better solution

Define & Delineate Problem

Everyone must understand the problem in the same way

Analyze Problem

Determines direction of potential solutions. Looking at all sides of problem

Analysis Paralysis

Potential pitfall. Excessive analysis prevents moving towards solution

Identifying Alternate Solutions

Brainstorming of solutions

Evaluate proposed solutions

Establishing evaluation criteria to apply to each proposed solution

Choose the best solution

Using decision making phases, choosing the best plausible solution

Decision Making Phases

4 Phases used to evaluate info to arrive at solution

p1 Orientation & Primary Tension

Group members express uncertainty. Comm. is polite, tentative, & focused

p2 Conflict & Secondary Tension

Reoccurring tension. Comm becomes more honest, argument

p3 Emergence

Group express cooperative attitude. Compromise occurs

p4 Reinforcement

Reach consensus & decision is solidified

Importance of Rhetoric

Must be able to listen critically & talk carefully. Helps people seek justice. Helps people clarify their own beliefs

Rhetor

Person/institution that addresses a large audience: originator of communication message but not necessarily the one delivering it. Ex: president speaking to the nation

Art of Rhetoric

Aristotle-three artistic proofs: ethos, pathos & logos

Ethos

Credibility. Rhetors gain credibility from good sense, moral character, & goodwill

Pathos

Use of emotions. Emotional appeals affecting decision making. (using photos of a dead body in murder case)

Logos

Rational appeals. Reasoning & rationality. (using fingerprints in a murder case)

Social Position

Place in the social hierarchy. ( student, customer, friend, voter...etc)

Relationship to Audience

Must be adapted to the Rhetorical Audience (people who can take the appropriate action in response to the message)

Reaffirming Cultural Views

Rhetorical events (events that generate a significant amount of public discussions) give insight to the ways meaning is constructed & rhetoric & cultural values are affirmed

Increasing Democratic Participation

Deliberative rhetoric (used to argue what a society should do in the future) is deeply embedded in the democratic process

Public Sphere

Arena in which deliberative decision making occurs through the exchange of ideas & arguments. Usually the voices of less powerful groups/individuals

Bringing About Justice

Use of forensic rhetoric (addresses events that happened in the past & focus on setting things right about an injustice has occurred)

Prompting Social Change

Used in social movements (large body of people attempting to bring about change)

Hot Media

Those that extend one's sense with a lot of data/information. Less participation. Ex: movie, radio, photograph

Cold Media

Require receiver to fill in much more information ex: TV, Telephone, Cartoon

Media

Plural for medium, a channel of communication. Ex: film, radio, tv, newspapers

Cultural Industries/Mass media business

Large organizations in the business of mass communication that produce, distribute, or show various media texts as an industry

Linear Model

Portrayal of communication as a process occurring largely in one direction. (Media Message → Receivers ex: violence & sexuality on tv affects viewers

Mass Media Effects

Influence that media has on people's everyday lives. ex: Measure the influence media has on a person. Media images of beautiful people & self image

How Individuals Choose Media Messages

Scholars want to study the direct effect of a particular media outlet, they need to know the audience to study

Selective Exposure

Idea that people seek media messages &/or interpret media texts in ways that confirm their beliefs & resist/avoid messages that challenge their beliefs. Ex: passion of the Christ & Fahrenheit 911

Uses & Gratifications

Idea that people use media messages & find various types of gratification in some media than others

Confirming Social Identity

Media influences our understanding of identities of ourselves & others. Ex: jokes on homosexuality are still prevalent in a lot of films which reinforces the hierarchy that heterosexuality is valued over homosexuality

Agenda-setting capacity

Power of media coverage to influence individuals view on the world

Cultivation theory

idea that long term immersion in a media environment leads to "cultivation" shared beliefs about the world. Ex: although crime rates have dropped, Americans feel more insecure than ever

Media Events

Occasions/catastrophes that interrupt programming & create vast numbers of media messages. Ex: 9/11.These events are filled with messages that shapes one's view of the world

Media Violence

Representations of violent acts in the media. Violence in the media increases aggression & anti social behavior in children

Media Activism

Practice of organizing to communicate displeasure with certain media images & messages, as well as to force change in future media texts

Hays Code

Self-imposed rules for Hollywood media content instituted in 1930 with the goal of creating "wholesome entertainment"

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