Where is it found?
All cells in the chromatin, chromosomes, and genes
What is DNA?
DNA is the blueprint ( or set of recipes) for the production of proteins and RNA molecules.
How do the Nitrogen bases match up?
Always the same way-nitrogen based pairs held together by hydrogen bonds
Adenine always connects with Thymine
A - T orT - A
Cytosine always connects with Guanine
C - G or G - C
What is Step 1 of DNA Replication?
Unzipping = The DNA unwinds, hydrogen bonds between the bases are broken, and the two sides separate
What is Step 2 of DNA Replication?
Free DNA nucleotides move in between the sides and begin to match with bases on each side.
What is Step 3 of DNA Replication?
Two identical DNA molecules are made= each has one side from the original strand of DNA and a newly formed side
Where is RNA found?
In the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells; in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
What is RNA made of?
NUCLEOTIDES-- building block consisting of a 5-carbon ribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of 4 nitrogen bases.
What does RNA look like?
A single sided molecule composed of nucleotides.
-not a double helix
-shorter than DNA (only the length of 1 gene)
What are the Steps of Transcription?
1. The DNA unwinds
2. H bonds are broken between the bases on the DNA
3. The sides of the DNA separate
4. Free RNA nucleotides move in between the DNA strands.
5. A mRNA is created by copying the DNA gene. mRNA leaves the nucleus. mRNA travels to a ribosome to be "read" during the process of translation
What happens during Translation?
mRNA carries information from a DNA gene to a ribosome. A ribosome reads the mRNA and links together the amino acids needed to build a protein.
What is on the RNA to let it know to make the proteins?
There are special codons (3 to make amino acids) to make specific amino acids to make proteins. There are special codons to stop the process.