Describe the degree of global 'interconnection' after 1500 CE compared to before 1500.
By the year 1500, many discoveries in Europe allowed them to travel further, connecting them to the Indian Ocean trade routes as well as to the new world. This was a major increase in global 'interconnectedness,' as these regions had been previously relatively isolated.
What were the overall effects of this change in global interconnectedness?
The main effect was the connection between Europe and Asia and between the existing world and the Americas. These connections allowed for trade, exchanges of ideas, and the formation of colonies.
How did the global trade network after 1500 CE affect the pre-existing regional trade
networks? (Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, trans-Saharan, Silk Routes)
The European presence in the Indian Ocean trade did not greatly influ
ence the other participants. There was very little European involvement compared to the existing trade and the Europeans did not provide any new or valuable products to the trade system.
What technical developments made transoceanic European travel & trade possible?
Some navigation innovations included the astrolabe to determine latitude and the use of the compass to determine directions. A major development in the ships used was the triangular sail. Triangular sails allowed sailors to sail into the wind, encouraging voyages further and further from home.
Where did those developments originate?
Most of these innovations originated in Asia but were adopted and spread by the Muslim Empire, eventually reaching Europe.
What were the major notable transoceanic voyages between 1450-1750 CE?
1492: Christopher Columbus discovered the Caribbean on a Spanish funded voyage.
Vasco de Gama sailed around Africa into the Indian Ocean.
Where did Zheng He and the Chinese Treasure Fleets travel?
Zheng He's fleets travelled throughout the entire Indian Ocean trade network. The fleet went as far as the Arabian Peninsula, Africa, India and Southeast Asia. Some historians theorize that Zheng He may have even travelled across the Pacific Ocean to parts of America, but this has not been proven.
Why did Portugal begin longer maritime voyages ca. 1430 CE?
Portugal began exploring with long maritime voyages because they were looking for better trade routes. Portugal wanted to trade in the Indian Ocean trade network and their geographic characteristics such as a long coast line and facing out towards the Atlantic made it ideal for the Portuguese to begin longer seafaring expeditions.
What effect did Columbus' travels have on Europeans?
Columbus' travels led to the first lasting connection between the Americas and the Eastern World.
What originally motivated Europeans to travel across the northern Atlantic?
They were looking for a faster way to access the Indian Ocean trade network.
How did the new global connections affect the peoples of Oceania and Polynesia?
Due to the discovery of these islands by European powers, many were subject to imperial rule. With Europeans came disease, and due to the lack of economic opportunity in the Polynesian Islands, they were not pursued with great interest. Christianity and slavery for South American plantations was also forced upon the Polynesians.
What new financial and monetary means made new scale(s) of trade possible?
The creation of stock companies made it less risky to invest in exploration and colonization for rich people. With less risk, more people were likely to invest and as a result exploration grew at a much faster rate. This meant more resources for Europeans; who could now trade at a much greater scale.
What previously established scale(s) of trade continued?
Trade throughout the Indian Ocean trade network continued as a high rate throughout the age of exploration.
Describe European merchants overall trade role c. 1450-1750.
Because many of the resources in the Indian Ocean trade network were difficult to produce or could not be found in Europe, European merchants had to pay in bullion in order to get what they wanted. This led to an outflow in cash for European governments and made the economy more unstable. Europeans, to compensate for this, tried to colonize parts of the world, as a means to produce their own resources and be able to compete with countries in the Indian Ocean and Silk Road networks.
What role did silver play in facilitating a truly global scale of trade?
The Spanish found silver in Argentina as a result of their exploration. The Chinese used silver to facilitate trade in their economy as it was part of their currency. Because Spain had so much silver, and China had products to offer Spain in exchange, trade in some capacity occurred through a global network. Therefore, as Spain found and sold silver all the way through to China, silver facilitated a global network.
What new mercantilist financial means developed to facilitate global trade?
The advent of stock companies made it possible for smaller investors to provide more capital for less risk. This led to more money being transferred and as a result facilitated global trade.
What were the economic and social effects of the Atlantic trading system?
Economically, the trade system provided cheap labor and created new markets in the newly formed colonies of the New World. In Africa, the loss of population and slave trade stunted the long term economic growth of African governments. Socially, racism grew as people began to see some Africans as less than people as a means to justify enslaving them.
What were the unintentional biological effects of the Columbian Exchange?
Many invasive species of plants and animals came into the New World and as a result took out many native species because in the New World they had no natural predators. Also, many diseases, which the Native Americans were not immune to, the Europeans brought over. As a result, many Native Americans died. Native Americans spread syphilis to Europeans.
What foods were transferred to new geographic regions as part of the Columbian Exchange, and what were labor systems made this transfer possible?
The Americas gave potatoes, beans, squash and maize to Europeans. Europeans brought wheat, rice, bananas, and grapes. Coffee from Africa and sugar cane from Asia became cash crops in the newly colonized Latin America.
What plants/animals were deliberately transferred across the Atlantic as part of the Columbian Exchange?
Europeans brought many animals from their homeland to the Americas in order to make their lives easier. Examples of animals that the Europeans deliberately brought over include: horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and chickens. Animals brought to the Old World from America include turkeys, llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs.
What effects did American food crops have on the diet of Afro-Eurasians?
Because Native Americans did not rely on meat as much as Afro-Eurasians, their plants were much more efficient in terms of calories. Because of this, when Europeans brought home foods such as potatoes and maize, there was a population boom as people started to take in more calories due to the increased efficiency of the crops they consumed.
How did settlers' action affect the Americas environmentally?
There were many things that settlers did that forced Native Americans to change their lifestyles. One example of how settlers changed the environment is that they began to work the land more vigorously than the Native Americans. This resulted in less ecological stability and erosion of land. Europeans also brought many diseases which the Native Americans were not immune to, and as a result wiped out large amounts of the population. Settlers also forced the Native Americans in land, and as a result they became more reliant on a nomadic lifestyle in which they hunted bison.
How did the Columbian Exchange affect the spread of religions?
The Europeans came to America with three intentions, gold, God and glory. The Europeans spread Christianity to Native Americans and did not adapt Native American beliefs. The Columbian Exchange's main effect on the spread of religion was that it brought Christianity to the New World.
Where did the "universal" religions of Buddhism, Christianity & Islam spread?
Buddhism did not spread much after the Silk Road era. Islam continued to spread to parts of the world, but its main expansion occurred during the post Classical era. Christianity spread mostly during the Columbian exchange as European governments spread into new territories for trade and imperialism.
How did the Columbian Exchange affect religion(s)?
The Columbian exchange helped make Christianity a more global religion. Because Europe forcibly spread Christianity to North and South America, Christianity was able to box out Islam and other religions in the New World.
How did the arts fare during this period?
They did well and continued into present times.
How did public literacy as well as literary and artistic forms of expression develop during this period?
Literacy increased as there were more schools to give people basic education for the work force. Literacy rates would climb at an even higher rate during industrialization as mandatory education was created.
How did agriculture's role change between 1450-1750?
Prior to 1492, there was minimal contact between the new world and Eurasia and Africa. Once Columbus made contact with North and South America the exchange of crops, slaves, and diseases began, known as the Columbian exchange. Agriculture became a way of exploiting underdeveloped nations. Europe used the raw materials of the America's to make themselves wealthier. Before, agriculture was primarily used as a food source for a population. Afterwards, agriculture was also used to produce commodities such as tobacco and sugar cane (meaning agriculture also became more important in global trade).
What pre-requisite conditions made these changes possible?
-Advancements in maritime technology (such as compass, ships, sails, etc.)
-Discovery of the New World
-Initial monetary investments in plantations/exploration
-Source of labor (slaves, indentured servants)
-Initiative to attain more raw materials through expansion
How did labor systems develop between 1450-1750?
As imperialism picked up speed there was a growing need for labor. Europe began to exploit what they thought of as the "inferior" races. Forced labor included natives and African Americans.
How was peasant labor affected between 1450-1750?
In regards to the end of industrialization, peasant labor shifted from farms to factories. In the Americas, indentured servants began to decrease as more slaves were shipped across the Atlantic. Also, in Europe here was a shift in the control of peasant labor. Tighter control and less freedom for the laborers emerged.
How did slavery within Africa compare to the pre-1450 era?
Slavery within Africa increased to match demands of the slave trade. Cities also grew along the eastern border of Africa. These towns became hubs of the salve trade. Slavery enabled towns to grow in Africa. Slavery became a source of income for African towns.
How did the Atlantic slave trade affect both African societies and the economy of the Americas?
The Americas benefited from the slave trade because the increase in labor allowed for an increase in productivity. This also helped the economies of European nations because they reaped the benefits of the American colonies.
How did labor systems develop in the colonial Americas?
There was a need for labor force in the New World to work the tobacco and sugar cane plantations. Initially, indentured servants were sent to the New World. These servants were promised a head right of 50 acres after 7 years of service. Indentured servants became more risky because they were prone to rebellion. As a greater need for labor arose, slaves also were forced to migrate from Africa to the New World.
How did the post-1450 economic order affect the social, economic, and political elites?
It directly benefited the merchant class due to the increase in trade. The gap between the powerful elite (plantation owners) and the indentured servants and slaves increased as well as the rich became richer but the lower class did not change in economic status. 2
How did pre-existing political and economic elites react to these changes?
Due to the rise of aristocracy, power shifted from the important members of social groups to smaller family units who were wealthy and well-connected. Therefore, these important members lost their social status.
How were gender and family structures affected to these changes?
There was an increase in women rulers during the 16th century, For example Mary Queen of Scots of Catherine de'Medici, Regent of France. These women were often more respected s rulers during these times; however, women were still seen as their husbands property. Since aristocracy became increasingly favored by society, the family unit became more prevalent.
How did societies in the Americas reflect the post-1450 economic order?
Due to the insurgence of slaves and immigrants, new societies and social standings developed in the Americas according to race. Native American societies withered as European elites continued to conquer their land and exploit their natural resources. At the same time, European conquest enabled new leaders to arise in the Americas, such as powerful Native Americans.
How did empires attempt to administer the new widespread nature of their territories?
European powers tended to install officials in the areas that they ruled who were of European descent. For example the Spanish appointed creoles to political offices in Latin America and some parts of South America. '
How did the role of Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe develop in this new -world-wide political order?
-the Americas became the site of new colonies of the Spanish and British Empires
-Asia-In the seventeenth century Chinese and Japanese citizens participated in the growing opportunities as colonists. Site of European trading empires.
-Europe- Great Britain and Spanish civilizations had empires. Portugal and the Netherlands had more of a trading empire in Southeast Asia.,
How did the people of various empires react to their government's methods?
These people either accepted the new rulers and complied with new leadership or they resisted the new rule. Some colonies attempted to remain neutral as well.
How did political rulers legitimize and consolidate their rule?
They appointed officials that were of their own descent, hired translators in order to negotiate with the locals, and attempted to assimilate the locals into their culture and religion.
What role did religion play in legitimizing political rule?
Religion became a way for empires to justify their actions. These powers believed it was their duty to civilize and spread their religion to those they deemed "uncivilized". Religion was part of a greater scheme of cultural assimilation of the natives. For example, converting the Native Americans into Christians alleviated the tension between them and the British Empire, allowing for easier trade between them.
How were ethnic and religious minorities treated in various empires?
-Blacks were considered inferior in the Americas as they were slaves. This means that they were exploited as a labor force and had less rights.
-Native Americans were considered to be savages by the Europeans, which led to conflicts between the two.
-Cults in Mexico convulsed the Church. Missionaries attempted to convert the cults through peaceful and violent methods
How did rulers make sure that their governments were well run?
Empires appointed rulers of their own descent to run the colonies. When empires felt that their power was in jeopardy of being overthrown they used violence to decimate the opponents. For example, in the Americas the local government destroyed the rebellious indentured servants in their fight for power, known as Bacon's rebellion.
How did rulers finance their territorial expansion?
-Joint-stock company: the costs were divided amongst shareholders
-ex. Dutch East India Company
-paid for by government
What was the relationship between imperialism and military technology?
As military technology increased imperialism as a result increased and also vice-versa. For example machine guns and rapid-firing rifles made imperialism possible.
How did Europeans go about creating new global empires and trade networks?
-Maritime trade routes (i.e. the discovery of the easterly winds that connect the New World to Asia)
-advancements in technology (i.e. better stream-lined ship design)
-creation of joint-stock companies which we used to finance such explorations
How did pre-existing land-based empires and new empires during this era compare to previous era's empires?
New land empires became arenas of global trade. There was a greater connection between empires. Technology, culture, religion, art, and political ideas were easily spread and shared across great distances. There also was more diversity in animal and plant life across the globe because of the new connections made during imperialism.
What obstacles to empire-building did empires confront, and how did they respond to these challenges?
-hostile natives- usually dealt with by force
-competing empires-attempted to find more natural resources and grow more cash crops