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Excess body fat increases chronic disease and health risks. One of these diseases is sleep apnea and is defined as

Excess weight in the upper body-particulary around the lungs and pharynx

Basal metabolism is the energy expended

when resting, but awake, and in a fasting state.

All of the following are true about contributors to energy expenditure except

fidgeting accounts for 40 percent of total energy expenditure.

The method for determining energy expenditure that involves the measurement of heat given off by the body during a select period of time in an insulated chamber is

direct calorimetry.

Xenical is a weight loss drug that works in the digestive system

to block digestion of about one-third of the fat in the food we eat.

When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for women warrants an obesity diagnosis.

35%

When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for men warrants an obesity diagnosis.

24%

Which of the following is not a way to estimate body fat?

Body mass index

When individuals lose weight quickly, most of the weight lost is from

water, glycogen, and muscle tissue.

Changing one's frame of mind related to weight control and nutrition is called

cognitive restructuring.

Choosing a diet low in sodium means knowing which foods are high in sodium and which foods are low in sodium. Which item has the highest level of sodium

deli meat.

Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ___________ mm Hg.

140/90

Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via

evaporation

Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?

6 cups.

Which of the following portions of food would have the least sodium?

Animal Crackers, 1 ounce

The typical American diet contains approximately ___ milligrams of sodium

2,300-4,700

Potassium is found in the largest quantities in

fruits and vegetables.

The major source of chloride in the diet is

salt.

The DASH diet for reduction of hypertension

recommends 2-3 servings per day of low-fat dairy products

The most practical advice for prevention of hypertension is

maintain a healthy weight.

Which food contains preformed vitamin A?

Liver

When a cell membrane is damaged by free radicals, which specific component of the cell membrane is damaged?

Phospholipid

Antioxidants

Donate electrons to free radicals.

Vitamin E functions as a(n)

antioxidant

Food processing

decreases vitamin E content of foods.

To bolster immune function, evidence supports

consuming 5 - 9 servings of a variety of fruits and vegetables per day.

Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?

Smokers

Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?

Carotene

Which fat-soluble vitamin is important for the health of epithelial cells because it promotes mucus production?

Vitamin A

Dark green or orange vegetables and/or fruits are recommended at least every other day to provide a source of

Vitamin A

A variety of factors can increase or decrease osteoporosis risk. Indicate which person is at the highest risk for osteoporosis.

Female, smokes, slender frame, and sedentary lifestyle.

The mixture of calcium and phosphorus that mineralizes bone is called

hydroxyapatite

Higher intakes of all of the following are associated with increased bone mass except

sodium

To prevent bone loss, a woman at risk for osteoporosis could

increase weight-bearing exercise.
increase dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D.
consult a physician about estrogen replacement.

All of the following deplete bone mass except

excess body weight

Calcium absorption is increased by all of the following except

old age.

Blood calcium concentration is regulated by

bones
intestines
kidneys

The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is

dairy

Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of

Vitamin D

Aging increases dietary needs for

calcium
vitamin D
magnesium

Adequate folate intake during pregnancy is imperative for the prevention of neural tube defects like spina bifida. Which option below has the greatest amount of folate per serving?

Prenatal vitamin with 400 micrograms of folate

This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida.

Folate/Folic Acid

An important role of vitamin K is the synthesis of

prothrombin.

The nutrient that prevents beriberi is

thiamin

Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease

pellagra

Intestinal bacteria can make this B-vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs.

Biotin

Vitamin B-12 is supplied almost entirely by

Animal Products

Pernicious anemia is most commonly caused by

inadequate B-12 absorption

How many sources of non-heme iron are in the following meal: Tuna sandwich on enriched bread with milk and an apple.

3

Worldwide, the most prevalent nutrient deficiency is of

iron.

Determine which activity would benefit most from carbohydrate loading?

Long Distance Running

What is the name of the high energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions?

Adenosine triphosphate

Anaerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting

30 seconds to 2 minutes

Which of the following is true about protein as an energy source?

The need for protein as an energy source is greater for endurance athletes than for those who body build or lift weights.

If an athlete's body fat level is too high, what is the best weight loss approach?

Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.

Carbohydrate loading

involves a tapering in the intensity of workouts with a corresponding increase in the percentage of carbohydrate intake.

Which of the following is true about the protein intake for athletes?

Most athletes eating a variety of foods will easily meet their protein needs.

If a woman athlete is not menstruating regularly, she should do all the following except

exercise more intensely.

A well-tolerated exercise for overweight people is

bicycling

Which of the following does not have an ergogenic effect according to your text?

Carnitine

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