Church of S. Miguel de Escalada, near León, Hispano-Islamic, 8th-11th cc.
• Exterior: Formed by a group of monks. Basilica style however the use of Horseshoe shaped arches- Muslims used that style a lot. Timber roof allowed a light, open nave. Clerestory. Christian building using Islamic architecture characteristic (blending of visual cultures)
• Interior: Plain now. They think the interior was at one time covered with paint, tiles, or hanging drapes.
o Polychrome used
Maius, Morgan Beatus, "Woman clothed with the sun", Hispano-Islamic, 8th-11th cc.
Maius was a Mozarabic artist.• Manuscript took it's name from who owns it.
• Beatus was a Spanish monk, who in the 8th c. wrote a commentary on the book of Revelation, which was very popular. It kept getting copied. So you will see many manuscript with it's name. Many different people kept illuminating it.
• Beatus believed the world would end at 838 AD
• He talked about how he was concerned about all the heiracy in Spain.
• This refers the Ch. 12.
• Latin text. Pictures represent words here.
• Upper left, woman clothed in the sun, standing on the moon, with 12 stars above here. Upper right refers heaven. Woman is confronted by a 7 headed dragon. Woman brought forth a child. There is a war in heaven. Dragon doesn't win. Dragon in cast out.
• Text is secondary to the images. Horizontal bands of color, and suggests landscape with foliage patterns.
Ramsey Psalter, "Crucifixion," Anglo-Saxon, late 10th-11th cc.
• Northern tradition: Brown ink, but also a use of blue ink
• Limp body- dead. This is triumphant.
Benedictional of St. Ethelwold, "The Marys at the Tomb," Anglo-Saxon, late 10th-11th cc.
A benedictional is a prayer book used by the bishop during mass. • Story from the Gospel, you see the three marys at the tomb. The Angel has already rolled the stone away.
• The manuscript is drawing from many visual cultures. Corner vegetal designs. Expressionistic clothing
• Northern characteristics: Polychrome
• Roman characteristics: Cantons leaf
• The Marys are in front of the picture plan.
• Highly interactive
Abbey Church of St. Michael, Hildesheim, Ottonian, late 10th-11th c.
• Massive and heavy
• Very volumetric
• Boxes and cylinders to create this building
• Painted ceiling
• Transverse arch
• Nave: A pier, two columns, a pier, two columns. Systematic. This contrasting of horizontal and vertical movement characterizes the new architectural aesthetic and sets Ottonian basilicas apart.
Hildesheim, Column of Bishop Bernward, Ottonian, late 10th-11th c.
• Spiral Freeze- records Christ's early life.
• Mimics tragons column
• Column is a symbol of victory- for Jesus
• Abstract and expressionistic figures- large, intense figures are compressed into a narrow space.
Echternach Master (the artist), Doubting Thomas, ivory, Ottonian, late 10th-11th c.
Diptych, Portable. Comes from gospel of John when Chirst commands Thomas to touch his wound
• The frame contains the images
• The body's are intertwined
• Jesus, who is standing on a pedestal, and facing forward, makes him the more important figure.
• Thomas, who's back is facing us, is a "stand-in". We become Thomas.
• Jesus allows Thomas to test and doubt. intimate
Saint Genis-des-Fontaines, (Fr. Pyrenees), Christ in Majesty with the Apostles, marble, Lombard-Catalonian, m. 10th- m. 11th c.
Lombard-Catalonian architecture;s primary concern was for practical, sturdy construction.• Here we start to see exterior dercor
• Lintile- the long stone that goes over an entrance
• Relief sculpture- Low relief
• Vegetal design. Roman leaf. Apostles define the contours of Mozarabic horseshoe arches- but a Islamic visual design. Cultures are blending here
• Abstract figures. Clothing is linear and outlined.
• The image is for the people coming into the door.
Reliquary of S. Foy, Romanesque, mid. 11th - 12th cc., gold & jewels
know reliquary: a repository or receptacle for relics.
St. Albans Psalter, Romanesque, mid. 11th - 12th cc.
• Polychrome and decorative
• Christine Marqyat- A woman who knew at an early age she didn't want to marry. This psalter that was made for her
• Story of Gabriel coming to Mary, telling her she will be the mother of Christ
• She is on a throne and has a book in her hand- status already, she is literate
• As if she has been interrupted from reading/ devotional
• Angel- gesture of speech
• Composition that has been divided in half
• Figure style
o More naturalistic
o Yet in part, it is still linear.
Conques (France), Abbey Church of S. Foy, Romanesque, mid. 11th - 12th cc.
floor plan, \
Toulouse, France, S. Sernin, Romanesque, mid. 11th - 12th cc.
plan, aerial vw, int. nave, ext. façade
• Enormous building
• Rose window is a later addition
• This is the poster child for a Romanesque church- Transverse arches, groin vault, dark and heavy
Moissac, Abbey Church of S. Pierre, Cloister, Romanesque, mid. 11th - 12th cc.
• Images of
o Crusaders, Monks Tempted, Wedding @ Cana, Lazarus & Dives, Daniel in Lions' Den, Christ Calling the Disciples, Christ Washing the Disciples Feet
• They become on object of meditation
Moissac, Abbey Church of S. Pierre, Cloister, Romanesque, mid. 11th - 12th cc, Capital:Daniel in Lions' Den
become on object of meditation
Fontenay, Former Cistercian Abbey, Romanesque, mid. 11th - 12th cc., interior nave
Perfect proportions in building. Mathematicians create a theory of the universe whose perfection could be expressed through music consonances. • Romanesque: Buttresses, Heavy, Small windows
• Different: No sculpture, Façade is missing the triumphant arch, Interior and capital lacks stories, images. Very geometric. Is it better to have the images?
Arch of Constantine, Late Antique, 4th-6th cc, marble, Rome
Honors Constantine's victory. His victory over Maxenious at the Battle of Milvian Bridge. The re-use of parts of earlier buildings are all over it-spolia. You see a move from naturalism to abstraction. Sculptors began to think in terms of light and dark- they undercut the edges of the forms to create shadow. Figures are simplified and geometric.
Garden of Livia, 1st c BCE, fresco
Example of Classical art. Roman naturalism/realism. Atmospheric perspective. Deep recessional space. Patron: owner of the house, summer retreat, residential/private space. Horizontal compositional lines- meant to draw your eyes outward. Use of fore, middle and background to show space.
The Spoils of Jerusalem, 1st c CE, marble, Rome, Arch of Titus
Arch of Titus is a sign of victory/recognition of Titus and his campaign against the Jews. This is relief sculpture on the inside. Shows distance with high and low relief.
Cubiculum of Good Shepherd, Pre-Constantinian, 1st-3rd cc, fresco, Rome, Catacomb of Domitilla
Peacock is a symbol of eternal like. Orant- Latin term, praying person, posture is one with spread out, upward ams. Ceiling of catacombs were considered heaven/paradise.
Old St. Peter's Church, Late Antique, 4th-6th cc, Rome
Once stood where the Basilica of St. Peter stands today. It is a place of pilgrimage- construction orders by Constantine. Thought to be location of the tomb of St. Peter.
Santa Costanza, exterior, Late Antique, 4th-6th cc, Rome
The mausoleum of Constantine's daughter. Circular central domed structure. Dome- Dome of Heaven. The 12 windows that light this symbolize the 12 apostles. Tomb and Basilica.
Sarcophagus of Junis Bassus, Late Antique, 4th-6th cc, marble, Rome
He was baptized on his death bed. Narrative concerns of the patron: guaranteed salvation and the triumph of the Roman Christian Church. Ten scenes from the Old and New Testaments occupy the two registers (Christ enthroned in heaven- tradio legis- handing down of the law to Peter and Paul. Short trees and buildings suppress the illusion of space. Symbols and narrative are used
Tetrarchs, 1st c. CE, porphyry, Venice
Diecletian, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire made Maximina his co-ruler. Then two more co-rulers where appointed to him and Maximina as their co-rulers. Senior rulers- two figures with beards. Very stylized, not individual. Closed sculpture- no space between arms and legs. Idea of the solidity of the Tetrarch. The porphry- hard, stability, enduring. Purple- royalty.
Good Shepard, in the Tomb of Galla Placidia, Late Antique, 4th-6th cc, Ravenna, mosaic
Lunette- half circle, mosaic over the entrance to the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. Use of tessera- the individual tiles. How is it interpreted? The god Hermes or the Shepard Orpheus? A christian knew the image symbolized Christ and the parable of the lost sheep. Gold and purple of Christ's robe and mantle. The gold cross proclaims Christ's victory over death. A deep blue/heavenly/starry mosaic or a flowering meadow of Paradise?
San Vitale, exterior, Early Byzantine, 4th-6th cc, Ravenna
Patron dedicaated the church to the city's patron St. Vitalis, who had been martyred on the site. Has a central octagonal plan. It is "tomb-like" form. Pilgrimage sight.
Hagia Sophia, exterior (Church of Holy Wisdom), Early Byzantine, 4th-6th cc, Architects: Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus, Constantinople
Church rebuilt by King Justinian; crowning architectural achievement. A place where the human and the divine meet. Mathmations, the architects, built a circle, shallow dome over a square building
Icon of Christ Pantocrator, Encaustic/wood, Early Byzantine, 4th-6th cc, Monastery of St. Catherine, Sinai
One of the earliest surviving icons. Pantocratoe- all powerful; ruler of all. This is an active picture plane- action between viewer and image. Personal. Image shapes viewers ideas, feelings and action. The image's holy qualities could shape the viewer- think of the media shaping us. Christ fills entire picture plane. His gard (robe) is purple. Holding the Book to Life. Big eyes. Gesture- blessing/speaking. Fully human and fully divine. Zeus- broad forehead, full beard, long hair- shows paganism
Medallion w/ bust of Christ, Early Medieval Art, 7th-8th c., cloisonné
Christ is holding text. Faces on the side, could represent the wind (Holy Spirit). Christ is flanked by alpha and omega (the 1st and last letter of Greek alphabet- beginning and the end) Abstract, more interested in the idea. Compositional line of Medallion- straight through Christ, bisects it. Contour lines are used in the Medallion. Portable. Color- Northern. show Christ in the Center, he is of central importance.
Book of Durrow, Matthew page,parchment, Dublin, Early Medieval Art, 7th-8th c.
This is smaller and portable. Book of Durrow only had the four gospels in it. Figure style is abstract. He has no arms. His body and face is frontal while his feet are in profile. Polychrome is used. Matthew is shown wearing precious/ expensive clothing. We have adorned him, showing the idea of his importance.
"Matthew" from the Lindisfarne Gospels, Early Medieval Art, 7th-8th c.
Color and linear lines show the Northern visual culture. Spatial recession is attempted. But it is confusing.
Aachen, Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Carolingian, late 8th-9th c., Plan
Aachen, Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Carolingian, late 8th-9th c., Plan
Abbey Church of Corvey, (Westphalia), Carolingian, late 8th-9th c.
Westwork"- vertical façade • Carolingian Towers- characteristic • Arch of Titus, or victory arches are mirrored. Jesus gets his own victory arch.
Ebbo Gospels , St. Matthew, Carolingian, late 8th-9th c.
Author page • Line o Expressionistic , movement of clothing, feverous, or active o Hand is framed and in the center. Emphases the action of the writing • Back ground is sketchy and faint- not important • Classical heritage- The foot rest, seat and podium • Figure style o Expressionistic o Some lingering of Naturalistic style. Maybe the clothes aren't but you can tell are real body is under there. There was really a human involved in this feverous activity. • The Angel in the background. Matthew is divinely inspired. Infused with the divine.
Great Mosque, Cordova, Spain, Mihrab area, Islamic, 8th-10th cc
Mosque is the center place of Muslim worship • This is a courtyard plan. Comes the closest to looking like Mohammad's house. Mirarb- along the wall that is oriented to Meca. Minbar- like a pulpit in Christian worship. Menerits- the tower were the call the prayer is given • Becomes a church and in the 16th c, they put a cathedral in the middle of it. In Islam, God is one and in the oneness of God (Allah) is contained all diversity.
Hosios Loukas, Phocis, Greece, Interior,Middle Byzantine, mid. 9th-12th cc.
congregation stood to witness here. no sitting
St. Louis Psalter, "King David looks down upon Bathsheba bathing and up to God," Gothic m. 12th - 14th cc., parchment, Paris
• Made of King Louis 9th
• The images were meant to shape/ form Louis as a Christian and as a ruler
• Historiated Initial- a large initial that begins a line and inside are stories
• Medieval person would have seen John as themselves. He is a mediator
Abbey Church of S. Denis, Gothic m. 12th - 14th cc., Nave w/ transept, Paris
• Birth place of Gothic architecture
• Abbey church, monastery
• Church of French royalty, has an early history
• Burial place of French kings
• Abbet Suger- lived here since he was a young boy. He is shown at the feet of Jesus.
o Very smart student, artistic
• Suger added on to the building, the building was completely 100 yrs after his death
Chartres Cathedral (of Notre Dame), Gothic m. 12th - 14th cc.
• Notre Dome, refers to Mary (our lady)
• Housed the tunic of Mary she wore when she gave birth to Christ (relic)
• Façade survives a fire in 1134
• Walls of Glass- flying buttress, this allowed stability
• External sculpture- royal portal
o Subject shifts as well. From last judgment/ apocalypses to more theological themes (this is due to the shift in attitude towards human-beings. Humanism, it is a more optimistic view of people, they take on more value than previously thought about. This idea is reflected in sculpture.
• Where the sculpture occurs becomes a iconographic issue
Chartres Cathedral (of Notre Dame), Gothic m. 12th - 14th cc., north transept, Jamb figures, Ancestors of Christ (Melchizedek, Abraham & Isaac, Moses, Samuel, David)
• North transept portal: Figures on columns, you have to fit them on columns, elongation- it's a functional thing. We are coming back to naturalism again.
Virgin & Child, Gothic m. 12th - 14th cc., silver/gilt w/ enamel and jewels, Paris
• Private sculpture
• A gift from d'everraux
• Mary is often times referred to as a queen
• A gift from a queen to a queen
• Wealthy patron, subject matter is precious
• She has a child on her hip, causing countro poster. Compositional line is somewhat curved
• Compositional line between eyes causes us to focuses on their relationship between each other
English Apocalypse, "Angel Showing St. John the Heavenly Jerusalem, " Gothic m. 12th - 14th cc., parchment
• Polychrome. Very drawn
• Spatial recession:
o No background.
o Figures are breaking over the frame and in your face. It comes over into the viewer space. (inhabits a piece of your world)
o Compositional line:
• Really strong diagonal line, which directs the eye through the story
• Format, Scale, Line, Light and Dark, Spatial attributes, Color, Medium and Texture
Name the 8 Formal Elements:
the objects would be considered large/small independently of its relationship to other objects
Define Absolute Scale:
An object is considered large/small in relationship to others around it
Define Relate Scale:
An object is represented as larger than those around it to indicate its importance.
Define Hieratic scale:
Define shape. The outline or edge of something- contains image.
Define Contour Lines:
Invisible-movement of our eyes over surface of a work follows a path of 'line'. This draws the viewers eye through work.
Define Compositional Line:
Calls attention to something; Symbolic; Shadow or dark as a way of modeling; Sharp light and dark create drama, emotion.
How do light and dark function?
The flat surface of the 2D work
Define Picture Plane:
The area 'behind' the picture plane. Fore, Middle and Background.
Define Picture Space:
Object depicted faithfully as it appears in nature. Looks 'natural', not distorted
Object is naturalistic, but is perfect according to a particular time period or culture.
Object is recognizable, but has been reduced to its basic elements.
Object is recognizable, but one or more of its elements had been exaggerated to express an idea and/or a feeling.
1. Gothic style has its roots in urban settings.
2. For medieval persons, what one saw could act upon the person, changing him or her.
3. Light and space are important to Gothic Architecture
Name 3 things that are important to know about Gothic art:
Has it origins in Paris. Gothic was a term given by people in the Renaissance, they thought it was barbaric and named it after the Goths.
Iconographic- people were really interested in decoding the images.
Gothic art is interested in what?
They thought images sent out rays that effected the person who was looking at the image. Its shaping you and influencing you- what you look at has negative/ positive consequences on you
What did people think during the Gothic Period?
• Strong verticality >
• Developed to Buttresses >
• Rose window then appeared, and elaboration of outside decoration.
• All Basilica form
Talk about the move from Romanesque church styles to Gothic church styles:
• There is an understanding that you can climb yourself up back to god through materials.
• You can work your way to the immaterial from the material world
God is pure light, everything that exists have some of that divine light within it. But the lower you get in matter, the less light there is. Building had to allow an enormous amount of light to flood in.
It is a distinctive blending of Christian and Muslim art. • Figures are first drawn with a pen, making them linear.
• Filled in with color. Which are broad and flat.
• Somewhat abstract
• Abstract animals
• Vegetal design
• Picture space is shallow
What are some characteristics of Mozarabic Art?
1. The center of culture and politics in the Romanesque period is the monastery.
2. Architectural sculpture, inside and outside, are the dominant visual forms.
3. Elaborate iconographies programs are found on these sculptures.
4. Pilgrimage and relics play an important part in religious life and visual art.
Talk about Romanesque Art and Architecture
Monastery, relic, and pilgrimage
What are the three main words of Romanesque Art and Architecture
• was a name given by art historians looking back. It looks like Roman art, but it's not as good. Not a compliment
• As people traveled, Islamic influence was felt
• Most of this art in Monastic, Christian
Talk about some characteristics of Romanesque Art:
• Jerusalem, Rome, and Santiago de Compostela (James the Apostle was believed to be here. These are the main cites
• When relics moves its called translated.
• People went on a pilgrimage as a result of sin, or to find spiritual or physical healing. Or because everyone else was doing it- it was the thing to do. Relics held the mind and spirit.
• It was an Economic thing- people gave money to churches along their journey
Talk about pilgrimage:
• Capitals on the outside with a story
• They were painted
What is a Historiated Captial?
• Churches become very tall and massive
• Groin vault
• Transverse arches
Talk about Vaulting:
• Walls have to be very thick
• Windows will tend to be small
• Busteress- increase the support of the walls
Characteristics of Romanesque Churches:
Life in the monastic community revolved around the cloister area- covered walkway. It is not just a passage from one place to another, they spent a lot of their time there. Reading, writing, meditating happened there. People grew up here. Christ disciples during the 11th c., they were on there own journey.
Talk about monastery life:
• A monk who argues that images are not beneficial. He felt monasteries are becoming to powerful, to wealthy. That images were a distraction.
Who is Bernard Clairvaus?