Chemistry Ch 14 & 15 (Acids/Bases)

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binary acid

an acid that contains only two different elements

oxyacid

an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element

Arrhenius acid

a chemical compuond that increases the concentration of H₃O⁺ ions

Arrhenius base

a substance that increases the concentration of OH⁻ ions

strong acid

an acid that ionizes completely

weak acid

an acid that releases few hydrogen ions

Brønsted-Lowry Acid

a proton donator

Brønsted-Lowry Base

a proton acceptor

Monoprtic Acid

can only donate one proton per molecule

Polyprotic Acid

can donate more than one proton per molecule

Lewis Acid

atom, ion or molecule that accepts an electron pair from a covalent bond

Lewis Base

atom, ion or molecule that donates an electron pair from a covalent bond

Conjugate Acid

the species that is formed when a Brønsted-Lowry base gains a proton

Conjugate Base

the species that remains after a Brønsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton

neutralization

reaction between hydronium and hydroxide ions to from water molecules

salt

an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid

self-ionization of water

where two water molecules produce a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion by transfer of a proton

pH

a solution's negative of the common log of the hydronium ion concentration

pOH

a solution's negative of the common log of the hydroxide ion concentration

transition interval

the pH range over which an indicator changes color

titration

the controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react completely with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration

equivalence point

the point at which the two solutions in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts

end point

the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color

strong acids (7)

HCl, HBr, HI, HNO₃, HClO₃, HClO₄, H₂SO₄

weak bases (2)

NH₃, CH₃NH₂

pH scale

0 (acidic) - 7 - 14 (basic)

pOH scale

14 (acidic) - 7 - 0 (basic)

A/B common properties

conduct electric current
change the colors of acid-base indicators
react with an acid or a base to form a salt and water

OH↔H₃O

1.0x 10⁻¹⁴ / concentration H₃O / OH

pH↔ pOH

14 - value of pH/pOH

concentration → pH

-log (concentration)

pH (pOH) → concentration

10⁻ⁿ (n= pH)
*for pOH first switch to pH

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