pearson ch 8-11

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78 terms

exhibit a joint cavity

synovial joints

types are sutures and syndesmoses

fibrous joints

bones are connected by collagen fibers

FIBROUS JOINTS

types include synchrodoses and symphases

cartilagenous joints

all are diarthrotic

synovial joints

many are amphiarthrotic

cartilaginous joints

bones are connected by a disc of hyaline cartilage or fibrous cartilage

cartilaginous joints

nearly all are synarthrotic

fibrous joints

shoulder hip jaw and elbow joints

synovial joints

freely movable joints are

diarthroses

anatomical characteristics of a synovial joint include

all of these (articular cartilage, a joint cavity, and an articular capsule)

factors that influence the stability of a synovial joint include

all of these (shape of articular surfaces, presence of strong reinforcing ligaments, tone of surrounding muscles)

the description "articular surfaces deep and secure; capsule heavily reinforced by ligaments and muscle tendons; extremely stable joint" best describes

the hip joint

ankylosis means

immobility of a joint due to fusion of its articular surfaces

an autoimmune disorder in which joints are affected bilaterally and which involves pannus formation and gradual joint immobilization is

rheumatoid arthritis

the connective tissue covering that encloses the sarcolemma of an individual muscle fiber is called the

endomysium

a fasicle is a

bundle of muscle fibers enclosed by a connective tissue sheath

contains actin

thin myofilament

contains ATPases

thick myofilament

attaches to the Z disc

thin myofilament

contains myosin

thick myofilament

contains troponin

thin filament

does not lie in the I band

thick filament

the function of the T tubules in muscle contraction is to

transmit the action potential deep into the muscle cells

the sites where the motor nerve impulse is transmitted from the nerve endings to the skeletal muscle cell membranes are the

neuromuscular junctions

contraction elicited by a single brief stimulus is called

a twitch

a smooth, sustained contraction resulting from very rapid stimulation of the muscle, in which no evidence of relaxation is seen, is called

fused tetanus

characteristics of isometric contractions include all but

shortening

which provides ATP fastest?

a coupled reaction of creatine phosphate with ADP

which does (do) not require that oxygen be available?

A) a coupled reaction of creatine phosphate with ADP and C) anaerobic glycolysis

which provides the highest yield of ATP per glucose molecule

aerobic respiration of glucose

which results in the formation of lactic acid

anaerobic glycolysis

which has carbon dioxide and water products

aerobic respiration of glucose

which is most important in endurance sports

aerobic respiration of glucose

the neurotransmitter released by somatic motor neurons is

acetylcholine

the ions that enter the skeletal muscle cell during action potential generation are

sodium ions

myoglobin has a special function in muscle tissue. it

holds a reserve supply of oxygen in the muscle

aerobic exercise results in all of the following except

increased size and strength of exisiting muscle cells

the smooth muscle type found in the walls of digestive and urinary system organs and that exhibits gap junctions and pacemaker cells is

single-unit

a muscle that assists an agonist by causing a like movement or by stabilizing a joint over which an agonist acts is

a synergist

the arrangement of muscle fibers in which the fibers are arranged at an angle to a central longitudinal tendon is

pennate

squints the eyes

orbicularis oculi

raises the eyebrows

frontal belly of epicranius

smiling muscle

zygomaticus

puckers the lips

orbicularis oris

pulls the scalp posteriorly

occipital belly of epicranius

the prime mover of inspiration is the

diaphragm

the arm muscle that both flexes the elbow and supinates the forearm is the

biceps brachii

the chewing muscles that protrude the mandible and produce side-to-side grinding movements are the

pterygoids

muscles that depress hyoid bones and larynx include all but the

geniohyoid

intrinsic muscles of the back that promote extension of the spine (or head) include all but

scalene muscles

several muscles act to move and or stabilize the scapula. which of the following are small rectangular muscles that square the shoulders as they act together to retract the scapula?

rhomboids

the quadriceps include all but

biceps femoris

a prime mover of hip flexion is the

iliopsoas

the prime mover of hip extension against resistance is the

gluteus maximus

muscles that cause plantar flexion include all but the

tibialis anterior

in walkin which two lower limb muscles keep the forward swinging foot from dragging on the ground

gluteus medius and tibialis anterior

what criterion (criteria) are used in naming the gluteus medius

relative size and muscle location

which of the following is a large deep muscle that protracts the scapula during punching

serratus anterior

which of the following is not part of the central nervous system

a nerve

myelinates nerve fibers in the CNS

oligodendrocyte

lines brain cavities

ependymal cell

myelinates nerve fibers in the PNS

schwann cell

CNS phagocytes

microglia

helps regulate the ionic composition of CNS extracellular fluid

astrocyte

what type of current flows through the axolemma during steep phase of repolarization

chiefly a potassium current

assume that an EPSP is being generated on the dendritic membrane. which will occur

a single type of channel will open, permitting simultaneous flow of NA+ and K+

the velocity of nerve impulse conduction is greatest in

heavily myelinated large-diameter fibers

chemical synapses are characterized by all of the following except

ions flowing through protein channels from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic neuron

biogenic amine neurotransmitters include all but

acetylcholine

the neuropeptides that act as natural opiates are

enkephalins

inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by poisoning blocks neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction because

ACh is not degraded, hence prolonged depolarization is enforced on the postsynaptic cell

the anatomical region of a multipolar neuron that has the lowest threshold for generating an AP is the

axon hillock

an IPSP is inhibitory because

it hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic membrane

impulses continue around and around the circuit until one neuron stops firing

reverberating

one or a few inputs ultimately influence large numbers of neurons

diverging

many neurons influence a few neurons

converging

may be involved in exacting types of mental activity

parallel after-discharge

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