Nutrition- Chapter 8

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Fluid Balance, Water and Alcohol

Fluids

Substances composed of freely moving molecules, have ability to adapt to shape of container.

Adults body contains how much fluid

50-70%

How much fluid is held in intracellular fluid

Two-thirds

How much fluid is held in extracellular fluids

One-third

Extracellular Fluid

Fluid that flows outside of cells within blood vessels and lymphatic vessels

Plasma

Fluid portion of the blood that carries blood cells within arteries, veins and capillaries

Hyponatremia

Too little sodium in the blood, usually from water intoxication

Lean tissues have

Higher fluid content than fat tissues

Lean muscle is

70% fluid by weight

Fat tissue is

10-20% fluid by weight

Who has more lean tissue and more body fluid

Men

Lean tissue and fluid is lost with

Age

Solvent

Substance that is capable of mixing and breaking a variety of compounds

Substances dissolved in body fluids become

Ions, sugars, amino acids, vitamins and minerals

Blood Volume

Amount of fluid in the blood

Decreased blood volume can cause

Low blood pressure

Temperature increases

the flow of blood from vessels in warm body to core to vessels just under the skin. Sweat releases heat as evaporation of water cools skin and blood, then returns cooler blood to core of body.

Fluids

protect and lubricate body tissues and joints

Water is lost through

Urine, feces, sweat, exhalation

Thirst Mechanism

Collection of nerve cells within the hypothalamus, stimulates desire to drink fluids in response to increased concentration of sodium in blood or decrease in blood pressure.

Detects change and stimulates hormone that signals kidney to reduce urine flow and return water to blood stream.

Hypothalmus

Metabolic Water

By-product of the body's breakdown of fat, carbohydrates and protein. Contribute to 10-14% of the body's needs.

Recommended intake of water for men

3.0 liters (13 cups) 3,000ml and 700 ml from food

Recommended intake of water for women

2.2 Liters (9 cups)2,200ml and 500 ml from food

Heat Stroke

Potentially fatal response to high temperature, characterized by failure of body's heat regulating mechanism.

Symptoms of dehydration

Nausea, flushed skin and unable to concentrate.

Coma and death can result when loss of water exceeds
death

8% of total body weight

Hypoanatremia symptoms

Low blood sodium: continued thirst even with fluid intake, nausea, HA, inability to concentrate, confusion. Causes kidney to retain to much water.

If dehydrated drink:

1,500 ml (6 cups) water for each kilogram of body weight lost.

Symptoms of heat stroke

Rapid pulse, deep breathing, hot dry skin, high temperature, loss of consciousness, apply ice packs to axilla and groin, spray cold water on body.

Made from fermented fruits, vegetable and grains

Alcohol

Alcohol is a high energy compound of

7 Kcal/g

One drink is the amount of a beverage that contains --- of alcohol

0.5 fluid ounce

Alcohol is not digested but is

absorbed directly through stomach into small intestines

Alcohol is transported to

liver, where it is metabolized and released into blood stream and excreted in urine, exhalation and sweat.

Alcohol that is combined with --- may delay gastric empty and intestinal absorption of alcohol

Fat, Protein and Fiber

Women absorb about -- more alcohol than men

30-35%

Moderate alcohol consumption is linked to

Improved HDL lipids, reduced blood clots, appetite stimulation in elderly, lower risk of cognitive impairment and dementia.

Risks of alcohol consumption

Breast cancer, hypertension, obesity, reduced absorption of Thiamin Folate and B6, interacts with medications

Alcohol poisoning

Alcohol consumption that overwhelms the livers ability to detoxify the blood. Depresses part of brain that regulates breathing and cardiac function.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Groups of defects found in infants who's mothers abused alcohol during pregnancy. Impaired growth, facial deformities, cognitive, emotional and physical problems

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorder

Umbrella term describing range of effects that can occur in a child of a women who drinks during pregnancy.

Alcohol related neurodevelopment

Learning, behavior problems, attention, judgement, impulse control

Alcohol related birth defects

heart, kidney and other defects.

One

The lover can breakdown how many drinks per hour

0.06%

Consumption of alcohol can impair judgement, fine motor skills, coordination when the BAC level reaches

5 or more drinks on one occasion

Binge drinking

70%

Liquor that is 140 proof contains how much alcohol

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