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WWI Alliances

There was the Triple Alliance aka the Central Powers. They had Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. The other guys, or the Allies, were the U.K., France, Russia, the U.S., and all of the European colonies in Africa. The Allies had allies like Portugal, Italy, Greece, Rumania, Serbia, and Libya too. The complex web of alliances was among the causes of WWI, as when one country attacked another, such as Germany to Poland, another country stood up for their friend, in Poland's case, their friend was Russia.

Archduke Ferdinand

1863-1914; archduke of Austria-Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip on his first official visit to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina; this man favored greater autonomy for provinces of Austria-Hungary, but Serbian nationalists didn't listen; wife, Duchess Sophie, was also killed

Gavrilo Princip

1894-1918; Serbian nationalist; killed Archduke Ferdinand and wife Duchess Sophie; attempted to kill himself but failed; died of tuberculosis in prison

WWI Causes

most obvious cause was the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand; underlying causes include: intense nationalism, frustrated national ambitions & ethnic resentments, pursuit of exclusive economic interests, abrasive colonial rivalries, & general struggle over balance of power particularly in Europe; there were also alliances that caused lots of nations to declare war on each other

Self-determination

concept that peoples w/ same ethnic origins, language, & political ideals had right to form sovereign states; this was very important in nationalism; also promoted by Pres Wilson as key to international peace and cooperation after WWI; this triumphed in many areas but didn't happen in many others

Schlieffen Plan

based on strategy developed by German General Count Alfred von _______; called for swift knockout of France followed by defensive action against Russia (important that it would take Russia a long time to mobilize its soldiers); serious logistical problems; also represented great obstacle to preserving peace in early 20th century

The Twenty-one Demands

secret demands presented to China by Japan; basically would make China a Japanese protectorate; British authorities spoke up for China, preventing the Japs from reaching their goal

Gallipoli

peninsula attacked by British & their allies in order to try to seize the approach to the Dardanelles Strait to get a supply line to Russia through currently Ottoman-controlled area; the attack here was suggested by Winston Churchill, first lord of the Admiralty (British navy); it was a horrible failure, esp. for Canadians, Australians, & New Zealanders, who suffered the most casualties (date enshrined as Anzac Day in Australia)

Bolsheviks

the March Revolution & the November Revolution in 1917 helped this group come to power in Russia; they dethroned Tsar Nicholas II & the Romanov dynasty; slogans: "All Power to the Soviets" & (most famous) "Peace, Land, and Bread"; they seized power from the provisional gov't formed after the March Revolution in Petrograd in the name of the All-Russian National Congress of Soviets and ended Russia's involvement in the Great War; this group was also the radical wing of the Russian Social Democratic Party; still gained power even though they were a minority among working-class parties

Vladimir Lenin

1870-1924; revolutionary Russian Marxist who lived in exile in Switzerland for a while; he decided that the industrial proletariat needed help from a strong political workers' party; headed the Bolsheviks

Nationalism during WWI

basically, people gained lots of pride in their country during the war and strove to help its cause; before the war nationalism led to rivalries among the European powers

War of Attrition

the military strategy of wearing down the enemy by continual losses in personnel and material

Total War

war of unlimited scope in which a belligerent engages in a mobilization of all available resources at their disposal, whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological, or otherwise, in order to entirely destroy or render beyond use their rival's capacity to continue resistance; this was type of war fought in WWI

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

treaty signed between Russia and Germany that gave possession or control of much of Russia's territory & ¼ of its population while Russia exited the Great War

Lusitania

an ocean liner, She was torpedoed by the SM U-20, a German U-boat on 7 May 1915 and sank in eighteen minutes, eight miles (15 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland, killing 1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard. The sinking turned public opinion in many countries against Germany, and was instrumental in bringing the United States into WWI

Fourteen Points

proposal of US Pres Wilson at Paris Peace conference; basically wanted to keep the peace and help Germany "heal" from its severely weakened state due to the war; also called for the formation of the League of Nations; key among them: open covenant of peace, openly arrived at; absolute freedom of navigaton on the seas in peace and war; the removal of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all nations; adequate guarantees for a reduction in national armaments ; adjustments of colonial disputes to give equal weight to the interests of the controlling government and the colonial population; and a call for a general association of nations

Treaty of Versailles

treaty signed at Paris Peace Conference that denied Germans a navy & air force & limited size of German army to 100,000 troops; supported the British & French notion that Germany had to pay for WWI

Mandate System

Victors of WWI did not know what to do with Germany's former colonies and Arab territories because they were unwilling to apply the principle of self-determination. League of Nations divided mandates into 3 classes based on the presumed development of their populations in the direction of fitness for self-government. Germans interpreted the _______ _______ as a division of colonial booty by the victors who conveniently forgot to apply the tutelage provision to their own colonies; a thinly veiled attempt at continuing imperialism

Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk)

"Father of the Turks"; head of Turkish nationalist movement; defied treaties drafted by Allies; drove out occupation forces; began Republic of Turkey, with Ankara as its capital; Allies recognized this in the Treaty of Lausanne; this man modernized Turkey & started policy of secularism

League of Nations

organization created by diplomats in Paris after WWI; 1st permanent international security organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace; 2 major flaws: had no power to enforce its decisions & used collective security to preserve global peace

Collective Security

principal relied upon by League of Nations to keep world peace; basically said that aggression against any state was considered aggression against all other nations, which would intervene to stop it; this never worked b/c superpowers, particularly US, didn't join

Indian National Congress

greatest and most influential of associations dedicated to the struggle against British rule/founded in 1885/first promoted collaboration with British to bring self-rule but after the Great War it became opposed to the British/was elitist until Gandhi transformed it

Muslim League

established in 1906 with the encouragement of the British government/worried that Hindu oppression and subjugation of the Muslim minority might replace British rule

Gandhi

(Mohandas Karamchand ...)/one of the most remarkable and most charismatic leaders of the 20th century/grew up prosperous and pious and married at thirteen/left hometown in 1888 to study law in London/moved tyo South Africa in 1893 where he organized the Indian community against racial segregation against Indians/embraced ahisma/developed techinique called satyagraha/returned to India in 1915 and transformed Indian National Congress from elitist anglicized into a mass organization that was effective for Indian Nationalism/people proclaimed him Mahatma "great soul"/fought for lower classes such as the Untouchables whom he called harijans "children of God"/under his leadership the INC launched the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-1922 and the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930/taught to boycott British goods and institutions

Ahimsa

tolerance and nonviolence/practiced by Gandhi

Jiang Jieshi

also called Chiang Kai-shek/took over leadership of Guomindang after the death of Sun Yatsen in 1925/was a young general who had trained in Japan and the Soviet Union/launched Northern Expedition that aimed to unify China under Guomindang rule/at end of this successful campaign he turned against his communist allies sparking a civil war

Long March

occurred in October 1934/85, 000 troops and other personnel of the Red Army travel 6, 215 miles facing hunger, disease, and Guomindang forces before arriving in Shaanxi province in NW Chinain October 1935 and established headquarter at Yan'an

Mukden Incident

Japanese troops purposely blow up a few feet of the Japanese-built South Manchuria Railway north of Mukden/they accuse the Chinese of attacking the railroad and this incident became the pretext for war between Japan and China

New elite

a novel African social class that derived its status from employment and education/many of this class studied in Europe

Jomo Kenyatta

(1895-1978) African nationalist who spent 15 years in Europe attending universities like the London School of Economics/led Kenya to independence from British

Marcus Garvey

Jamaican nationalist leader who preached black pride and called on blacks living in African diaspora to go "Back to Africa"

"dollar diplomacy"

U.S. expansion into Latin America centered around economy/the U.S. neocolonialism became an economic affair with the policies of Taft/swap "dollars for bullets" in terms of foreign policy/would help face fewer test to Monroe Doctrine/part of what Latin Americans call "Yankee imperialism"

Yankee Imperialism

the new U.S. expansion into Latin America through economic neocolonialism/term used by Latin Americans

"Good Neighbor Policy"

a revamped U.S. approach to relations with Latin America featuring "sweetheart treaties" which guaranteed U.S. financial control in Haiti and Dominican Republic/included the training of local police by U.S. marines which kept the peace and kept things cordial

Satyagrapha

technique of passive resistance used by Gandhi; means "truth and firmness"

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

eloquent & brilliant lawyer who led Muslim League in India; wanted a separate state for Muslims called Pakistan ("land of the pure") because rule by Hindus in a united India would threaten the Islamic faith there

Sun Yatsen

(1866-1925); leading opponent of old Chinese dynastic regime; most prominent nationalist leader in China after the regime collapsed (he tried to bring the country under the Nationalist People's Party, the Guomindang); proclaimed a republic in 1912, but it didn't last very long due to unstable gov't & pressure from the Chinese Communist Party; Jiang Jieshi succeeded this man as the leader of the Guomindang

Mao Zedong

(1893-1976); early member of Chinese Communist Party; former teacher & librarian; felt Marxist-inspired social revolution was the cure for China's problems; believed in equality of women; emerged as leader & principal theoretician of Chinese communist movement while on Long March; came up w/ Maoism, a Chinese form of Marxist-Leninism, where peasants rather than urban proletarians were foundation for successful revolution; believed village power was crucial in China, which was made up of mostly peasants

Final Solution

"solution" decided on by 15 Nazi leaders at Wannsee Conference; they decided to evacuate all Jews from Europe to camps in East Poland where they'd be worked to death or exterminated; Allied gov'ts didn't seem to care that much about the Nazis' anti-Semitism

Comfort women

women from Japanese colonies & occupied territories (mainly from Korea & China) forced to serve in military brothels ("comfort houses" / "consolation centers") during WWII; many were war casualties; either killed or had to live w/ deep shame after war

Truman Doctrine

partly in response to communist movements in Greece & Turkey, this Doctrine crystallized US perception of world divided between free & enslaved peoples; basically said that 1 way of life is based on the will of the majority (basically the US way of life & gov't) & the 2nd way of life is based on will of a minority forced on the majority (everything controlled by gov't)

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

US-sponsored regional military alliance against Soviet aggression; intent was to maintain peace in postwar Europe through collective defense

Warsaw Pact

created by Soviets in response to NATO's admitting West Germany; this was a military alliance of 7 communist nations; collective defense policies; helped give definition to early Cold War

United Nations

supernational organization dedicated to keeping world peace; reps from China, Britain, Soviet Union, & US finalized proposals for this at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, D.C.; final version of its charter written down by delegates from 50 nations at _____ _____ Conference in San Francisco; had a hard time keeping international peace & security during Cold War

Winston Churchill

Prime minister of Great Britain during WWII; organized the National Wartime government in UK. Was one of the three major allied powers with Soviet Union and US. Attended conferences at Yalta and Potsdam.

Harry Truman

Presidential successor to FDR. Anti-communist. Ordered atomic bombs to be dropped on the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Created the Truman Doctrine which drew the battle lines of the cold war.

Rape of Nanjing

Arial bombing of a Chinese urban center; 400000 Chinese people killed, 7000 women raped, 1/3 homes destroyed; major part of the Japanese invasion of China

Benito Mussolini

Italian fascist leader during WWII; promised glory through the acquisition of land that had been unrightfully taken after WWI- invades Ethiopia; editor of Italy's leading socialist daily Avanti! ("Forward!") until he founded his own paper, Il Popolo d'Italia ("The People of Italy"); turned to fascism after WWI when he established the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento (Italian Combat Veteran League); ruled Italy as Il Duce ("the leader"); signed Pact of Steel w/ Germany

Anschluss and Sudetenland

Forced annexation ("union") with Austria (1938); Western part of Czechoslovakia that Hitler demanded to be added to the German Reich, given to them at the Munich Conference (appeasement)

League of Nations

Organization created after WWI in an attempt to keep peace; ruled by the Big Five Powers, had no real control over world affairs (ex. Japan still conquers China, Italy still conquers Ethiopia). Germany left in 1933

Russian-German Non Aggression Pact

Stalin sought accommodations with the Nazi regime despite deep ideological differences w/ it. In August 1939 the foreign ministers of the Soviet Union and Germany signed the __________________ an agreement that shocked and outraged the world. By the terms of the pact, the two nations agreed not to attack each other and promised neutrality if either of them went to war with a third party.

Appeasement

The policy formulated by European politicians at the Munich Conference. They decided to concede to demands of Hitler to obtain Sudetenland, but Hitler breaks promise and continues attacks.

Munich Conference

At the ________ __________ held in September 1938, European politicians decided to deal with territorial expansion by aggressive nations, especially Germany. In conceding demands to Hitler, or "appeasing" him, the British and French governments extracted a promise that Hitler would cease further efforts to expand German territory. Their goal was to keep peace in Europe, even if it meant making major concessions.

Battle of Britain

Germans hope to use Luftwaffe to defeat Britain solely through air attacks nicknamed "The Blitz" when they rained down bombs on London and other metropolitan areas killing of 40,000 civilans/Royal Air Force staved off defeat however and that is a key turning point because Hitler would be nearly unstoppable if he had Britain

Operation Barbarossa

Germany invades Soviet Union in the largest and most powerful invasion in history/caught Stalin off guardand Germany had captured Russian heartland, Leningrad, and were at Moscow/however Blitzkrieg tactics failed in the vast, cold expanses of Russia/Soviet industry outstripped German industry/winter hits Germans hard/Germany gained the initiative but Stalin calls for a final hold

Pearl Harbor

December 7 1941 "a date that will live in infamy"/Japanese pilots took off from six aircraft carriers to attack Hawaii/devastated American naval power in Pacific/led to sweeping Japanese victories

Yalta and Potsdam

postwar settlements/" " was the second wartime conference and feautured Stalin, Churchill, and FDR/at " " the main issue was how to deal with the liberated countries of eastern Europe/" " occurred in a Berlin suburb and was the last wartime summit conference of the Allies focusing on immediate Allied control of Germany, occupation of Austria, and demarcation of the boundaries of Poland

Hitler

Evidently, he wanted to be an artist when he grew up in Vienna, Austria. Dropped out of high school, lived in a poorhouse and began hating Jews and Marxists (thought they wanted to destroy the world). Fled to Germany and was wounded twice in WWI. Blamed Jews for Germany's loss in the war and became a politician. Steadily rose to power in Germany, and then committed suicide before the end of WWII. (don't get involved in a land war in Asia and don't mess around with a Sicilian when death is on the line)

Gertrude Stein

Coined phrase "lost generation" to refer to all the intellectuals being emo after WWI. Most European intellectuals were all for the war in the beginning but wrote super depressing poems and novels by the end (All Quiet on the Western Front)

Oswald Spengler

Wrote the super-pessimistic Decline of the West where he compares society to an organism that lives and then declines and decays. Thought European society was more on the decaying end of the spectrum. All in all a really happy guy.

Albert Einstein

Revolutionized physics with his theory of relativity. Said that space and time are not absolutes but the measurement depends on the movement of the observer. Turns reality into a series of mental constructs

Sigmund Freud

First to look for psychological causes for mental disorders. Found a gap between the subconscious and the conscious that he thought suppressed bad memories. Thought that dreams held the key to psychology. Identified sexuality as the cause of suppressed memories and also believed that males all had Oedipus complexes. Believed psychoanalysis was what was needed to understand all aspects of human behavior.

Paul Gauguin

Artist who revolted against society by running to Tahiti and central America. Inspired by the art there and saw it as holding a sense of wonder Europe and Asia didn't have

Pablo Picasso

Used African American style art in his paintings. Was the leading proponent of cubism (using angles and asymmetry in painting)

Bauhaus

An architectural institution in Germany that set the standard of 20th century architecture. Used lots of glass and were very simple buildings. Most major cities have buildings with designs originated from this organization's first director, Walter Gropius. Design was good for large cities

"tangled" war debts

debts among the allies after WWI that involved the US loaning money to Austria and Germany so they could pay reparation to Britain and France which used that money to repay US war debts.

Black Thursday

Wall Street crumbled on this day taking the global economy with it. People lost their life's savings, panicked, and made the crisis worse by getting rid of stocks at any price and calling their loans

Smoot-Harley Tariff`

Raised duties on manufactured products to prohibitive levels causing other nations to raise tariffs which effectively destroyed global trade

"planned scarcity"

US government's Depression policy of destroying surplus crops to raise prices on the necessary ones while Americans starved

Joseph Stalin

Name means "man of steel". A Georgian who rose to the elite of Bolshevik ranks and repealed Lenin's NEP with the First Five-Year Plan to industrialize the USSR. Did not want consumer goods. Centralized the entire national economy.

Collectivization

The destruction of farmers' private property and ensuring everyone had the same amount of land. Stalin and the communists thought this would increase production. It, however, caused riots and the burning of crops and livestock. Stalin still proclaimed the plan a success

Fascism

A ruling theory that goes against communism, socialism, and democracy. It derives from the fasces, a Roman symbol of punitive authority. Fascists wanted a unique racial group to make up their community with no one else.

Weimar Republic

The democracy that replaced the German empire in 1919. They imprisoned Hitler several times, and also prevented the Nazis from gaining power for a little while

Nuremburg Laws

Laws instated by the Nazis that stripped Jews of German citizenship, and prohibited marriage between Jews and Germans.

Kristallnacht

"The night of broken glass" On the night of November 9-10, the Nazis arranged the destruction of thousands of Jewish stores, the birning of synagogues and the murde of 100 Jews throughout Germany and Austria

Uncertainty Principle

A concept proved by Warner Heisenberg who published "About the Quantum-Theoretical Reinterpretation of Kinetic and Mechanical Relationships". Principle is that its impossible to figure out the position and velocity of a sub-atomic particle at the same time. The act of observation interferes with electrons so it is impossible to observe them. Challenged the understanding of objective. Made physics a matter of probability instead of equations

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