Muscular System

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muscles

What are the organs of the musclar system?

fibers

muscles are composed of several hundreds of thousands of elongated cells called

shortening and contracting

each fiber is specialized for these two fucntions

cardiac, smooth, and skeletal

What are the three types of muscle tissue?

heart

Where is cardiac muscle found

cardiac

this type of muscle tissue pushes blood through the circulatory system

smooth

this type of muscle tissue pushes liquids and solids throughout the digestive system and regulates the openings of arteries

skeletal

this type of muscle tissue pulls on bones to allow the body to move

fibers, connective tissue, artery, vein, nerve

Each muscle contains these 5 things

Postural/Skeletal Movement, Maintain Posture, Protect and Support other Soft Tissue, Control Openings into the Body, Maintain Body Temperature, Store Nutrients

what are the 6 functions of skeletal muscle?

Postural/Skeletal Movement

this function of skeletal muscle produces contractions that pull on tendons, which move the body

maintain posture

this function of skeletal muscle creates constant tension in resting muscles that maintain the body position, whether sitting or standing.

Protect and support other soft tissue

this function of skeletal muscle supports the weight of the visceral organs and shields them from injury.

control openings into the body

this function of skeletal muscle creates circular muscles sphincters that control openings to the urinary and digestive systems.

maintain body temperature

this function of skeletal muscle describes the amount of energy needed for a muscle to contract. this produces a large amount of heat

stores nutrients

this function of skeletal muscle contains large amounts of amino acids.

deep fascia

the organization of skeletal muscles is made up of 3 layers of connective tissue that support each muscle and comprise of the

endomysium

this is the inner most layer

endomysium

this layer is made up of elastic connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber.
it contains muscle fibers, capillaries, neurons, and satellite cells

Perimysium

this is the middle layer

Perimysium

this layer surrounds many muscle fibers and bundles them into fasicles bundles of muscle fibers

epimysium

this is the outer most layer

epimysium

this layer bundles together all fasicles and separates muscles from other muscles and organs

tendon (aponeurosis)

all 3 connective tissue layers extend beyond the ends of the muscle fibers and combine to form THIS

sarcolemma

this is a part of the muscle fiber that is the cell membrane of a muscle fiber. It is excitable (able to conduct an electrical impluse)

Sarcoplasm

this is a part of the muscle fiber that is the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

Transverse tubules

this is a part of the muscle fiber that are hallow tubes that pass through the sarcoplasm from the sarcolemma.
they can also carry electrical impulses from the sarcolemma into inter of the cell.

myofibrils

this is a part of the muscle fiber that are long organelles that fill the muscle cell.
they contain tiny strands of contracile proteins called actin and myosin
they are responsible for cell contraction

sarcoplasmic reticulum

this is a part of the muscle fibers that is a system of membranes. In this, each myofibril is wrapped.
This stores calcium ions used for muscle cell contractions
they are encircled by t-tubules and carry electrical impulses.

sarcoplasmic reticulum

what stores calcium ions used for muscle cell contraction

when calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

when does muscle contraction start

sarcomere

this is a part of a muscle fiber that conducts the actual contracting unit of a myofibril.

actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin

each sarcomere contains strands of

actin

this is a strand of the sarcomere that contains filaments organized along a z line.

myosin

this is a strand of the sarcomere that contains filaments organized along a M line

cell contraction

this is created by the interactions between thick and thin filaments with the sarcomeres

thin filaments

these types of filaments include actin tropomyosin and trponin

actin

this thin filament contains 2 large, twisted, strands attached to a Z line. It contains active sites that bind with myosin

tropomyosin

this thin filament contains a double stranded molecule attached to actin. It contains protein molecules called troponin

troponin

this thin filament binds tropomyosin to active sites on actin, which prevents contractions. It is controlled by calcium ions

thick filaments

these types of filaments include myosin

myosin

this thick filament is twisted into sub units that attach to the m line.

myosin head

this part of myosin binds to active sites on active, which forms cross bridges.
this also pivots and provides movement

neuromuscular junction

this is a specialized connection between the nervous system and a skeletal muscle fiber.

synaptic terminal

this part of a neuron is the expanded region at the end of an axon

acetylcholine

this part of a neuron is a chemical messenger that is produced in the synaptic terminal and furthermore stores in vesicles
they are released by neurons.
they allow for communication with another cell

motor end plate

this part of a neuron is a region on the muscle fiber sarcolemma.
it receives the signal from a motor neuron

synaptic cleft

this part of a neuron is the gap between the synaptic terminal and the motor end plate

action potential

this part of a neuron is the electrical impluse. it travels along the neruon's axon to the synaptic terminal. the synaptic terminal eleases acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, which flows and binds to receptors on the motor end plate.
THIS is generated along the entire muscle fiber sarcolemma and into the t tubules

muscle tension

this occurs when a muscle fiber contracts.
the total amount of this produced in the whole muscle depends on the total number if muscle fibers contracting

motor unit

this is all of the muscles controlled by a single motor neuron
this is equal to a motor neuron + all of te muscle fibers controlled by it

recruitment

this is the process of calling up more motor units when more tension is needed

rest and recover

during a sustained contraction, motor united are activated on a rotating basis.
this allows fibers to do this

muscle tone

this is a resting tension in a muscle

stability (of muscles and bones), fast recruitment (because some motor units are already stimulated), and weight loss (as toned muscles use more energy to help burn more calories)

what are the three benefits of muscle tone?

isotonic and isometric

what are the two types of muscle contractions?

isotonic contraction

this type of muscle contraction states that as tension change, muscle length changes

concentric and eccentric

what are the two types of isotonic contraction?

concentric isotonic contraction

this is a type of isotonic contraction where the muscle tension exceeds the resistance and the muscle SHORTENS

eccentric

this is a type of isotonic contraction where the muscle tension equals the resistence. there is NO CHANGE in muscle length.

fast, slow, intermediate

what are the three types of muscle fibers?

Fast fibers

contraction speed: very quick, but strong
Fiber size: large diameter
Fatigue resistance: fatigues quite quickly
Energy production: large reserves of glycogen that store glucose which is used for the rapid production of anerobic ATP.
phasic muscles provide movement

phasic muscles

type of fast fiber that produces movement

quick

what is the contraction speed of fast fibers

large diameter

what is the fiber size of fast fibers

fatigues quickly

what is the fatigue resistance of fast fibers

anerobic ATP

what is the means of energy production for fast fibers

slow fibers

contraction speed: very slow
fiber size: small fiber diameter and weak contraction
fatigue resistance: high resistance (can last for hours)
energy product: large amounts of myoglobin, which is a red pigment that binds oxygen to ATP for aerobic production.

postural muscle

what type of muscle of slow fibers resists gravity?

slow

what is the contraction speed of slow fibers

small diameter

what is the fiber size of slow fibers

resistant (can last for hours)

what is the fatigue resistance of slow fibers

aerobic myoglobin

what is the energy production of slow fibers

intermediate fibers

contraction speed: fairly fast
fiber size: intermediate
fatigue resistance: intermediate
energy production: aerobic and anerobic

fairly fast

what is the contraction speed of intermediate fibers

intermediate diameter

what is the fiber size of intermediate fibers

intermediate resistance

what is the fatigue resistance of intermediate fibers

anerobic and aerobic

what is the energy production of intermediate fibers

white, red

what are the two colors of muscle fibers

white

this color of muscle fibers is made up of mostly fast fibers and is pale in color
Ex: chicken breast

red

this color of muscle fibers is made up of mostly slow fibers and is dark.
Ex: chicken leg

human

this creature contains mixed fibers and appears pink in color

hypertrophy, atrophy

what are the two types of muscle growth

hypertrophy

this is the type of muscle growth that occurs from increased exercise. It increases the muscle diameter and number of myofibrils

atrophy

this is the type of muscle growth that causes muscle loss from decreased exercise. It causes a decrease in muscle fiber diameter and number of myofibrils. It causes reduced tone and power.

opposing

muscles are organized in -------- pairs

insertion

this is the term that describes the point of attachment where the most movement occurs.

towards

insertion moves ------- the origin

belly

this is the term that describes the fleshy portion of the muscle

action

this is the term that describes the movement produced by the muscle.
Examples include flexion, extension, abduction, etc.

agonist

this is the term that describes the muscle producing the particular movement (action)

antagonist

this is the term that describes the muscle that stretches to allow the agonist to perform its action

stabilizer

this is the term that means the point that holds the origin in place furring movement.

muscles of expression

Occipitofrontali, obicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, buccinator, zygomatic major, zygomatic minor, platsmus make up this type of muscle

superior-nuchal line of the occipital bone

Occipitalis origin

galea aponeurotica

occipitalis insertion

tenses and retracts scapula

occipitalis action

galea aponeurotica

frontalis origin

skin of eyebrows

frontalis insertion

raises eyebrows

frontalis action

medial margin of orbit

orbicularis oculi origin

skin around eyelids

orbicularis oculi insertion

closes eyes

orbicularis oculi action

maxillary bone and mandible

orbicularis oris origin

skin of lips

orbicularis oris insertion

compresses corner of mouth

orbicularis oris action

alveolar process

buccinator origin

fibers of orbicularis oris

buccinator insertion

compresses cheeks and directs food

buccinator action

zygomatic bone near zygomatic maxillary suture

zygomaticus major origin

angle of mouth

zygomaticus major insertion

retracts and elavates corner of mouth (smile)

zygomaticus minor and major action

zygomatic bone posterior to zygomatic temporal suture

zygomaticus minor origin

upper lip

zygomaticus minor insertion

superior thorax

platysmus origin

mandible and skin of cheek

platysmus insertion

tenses skin of neck and depresses mandible (frown)

platysmus action

muscles of mastication

temporalis and masseter

temporal lines of skull

temporalis origin

coronoid process

temporalis insertion

elevates mandible

temporalis action

zygomatic arch

masseter origin

lateral surface of mandibular ramus

masseter insertion

elevates mandible

masseter action

ribs and sternum

origin of rectus abdominis

pubic bones

rectus abdominis insertion

flexion of torso

rectus abdominis action

muscles of the shoulder

deltoids, rotator cuff

lateral clavicle

anterior deltoid origin

acromion process

middle deltoid origin

spine of scapula

posterior deltoid origin

deltoid tuberosity of humerus

insertion of all deltoid muscles

abduction of shoulders

action of all deltoid muscles

flexion of shoulder

action of anterior deltoid

extension of shoulder

action of posterior deltoid

subscapular fossa of scapula

subscapularis origin

lesser turbercle of humerus

insertion of subscapularis

medial rotation

action of subscapularis

infraspinous fossa of scapula

infraspinatus origin

greater tubercle of humerus

insertion of infraspinatus

lateral shoulder rotation

action of infraspinatus

lateral border of scapula

teres minor origin

greater tubercle

teres minor insertion

lateral rotation

teres minor action

supraspinous fossa

supraspinatus origin

greater tubercle

insertion of supraspinatus

abduction of shoulder

supraspinatus action

muscles of thigh and leg

quadriceps, hamstrings, gastronemius, soleus

ischial tuberosity

semimembranosis origin

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