APUSH Unit 16 IDs

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Bay of Pigs

The Bay of Pigs was an American attempt to overthrow the newly established communist government in Cuba by training and sending Cuban rebels. The coup ended up in a disaster due to the lack of support by the Americans. The incident was an embarrassment for the U.S. and ultimately led to Castro pleading for Soviet aid (Cuban Missile Crisis)

Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall was a fortified wall made up of concrete and barbed wire made to prevent East Germans escaping to West Berlin. It was one of the most visible signs of the Cold War and the Iron Curtain.

Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis was an incident where Soviet missiles were placed in Cuba as a response for help. The event greatly increased tensions between the Soviets and the Americans. As a result, a hotline was established between the two nations to avoid any accidents.

Robert Kennedy

He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans.

Lee Harvey Oswald

Oswald was JFK's assassin. The death of JFK led to Johnson's presidency.

Warren Commission

The U.S. commission in charge with investigating the assassination of JFK. It came to the conclusion that Oswald was alone in his actions and advised to reform presidential security measures.

Brown v. Board of Education

A famous court case where Oliver Brown sued on the grounds that the segregation of schools was unequal. The unanimous decision by the Supreme Court reversed the policy of segregation, declaring it unconstitutional, thus allowing the desegregation of all public facilities.

Southern Manifesto

The manifesto was a document written by legislators opposed to integration. Most of the signatures came from Southern Democrats, showing that they would stand in the way of integration, leading to another split/shift in the Democratic Party.

Rosa Parks

Parks was a southern black woman who refused to give up her seat on a bus. Her actions led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and it was the first milestone in the Civil Rights Movement.

Little Rock

Little Rock was the site of the forced integration of a public school in 1956. The use of the 101st showed that the federal government was upholding and will continue to uphold the decision of Brown v. Board.

Orval Faubus

He was the governor of Arkansas during the time of the Little Rock Crisis. He attempted to block the integration of the school by using the national guard, leading to a confrontation with the Eisenhower and ultimately integration of the school.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. was a civil rights leader from Alabama. He was important in getting the government to pass civil rights legislation.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

The SCLC was a civil rights organization that supported peaceful demonstration (i.e. Montgomery Boycott) The organization helped influenced the government to pass civil right legislation.

James Meredith

He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.

George Wallace

Wallace was the governor of Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement and a staunch segregationist. He was a popular figure among segregationists becoming a rallying point.

Bull Connor

He was the chief of police of Birmingham, Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement. His use of excessive force against the peaceful marchers on television brought attention to the issue, and helped gain support for civil right legislation.

March on Washington

The march was a huge civil rights protest. It was here when King made his "I have a dream" speech. The march also pressured the government to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee

SNCC was a student based civil rights organization. Their actions, such as sit-ins, helped pass civil right laws.

Congress of Racial Equality

CORE was a civil rights organization. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.

Malcolm X

Malcolm X was an advocate of black power and was the figurehead of the Nation of Islam for some time. He was greatly influential in getting people to believe in black power and self-defense, as opposed to King's peace.

Stokeley Carmichael

He was a black activist as member of CORE. As the movement progressed, he started to become more militant creating the cry of black power.

H. Rap Brown

He was a black activist as a member of SNCC. Compared to others, he was very militant strongly advocating black power.

Black Panthers

A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.

Eldridge Cleaver

He was a black activist who wrote Soul on Ice. He was an influential black power advocate.

Civil Rights Act

A civil rights legislation passed by Johnson in 1964. The act outlawed segregation in public areas and granted the federal government power to fight black disfranchisement. The act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

Voting Rights Act

A civil rights legislation passed by Johnson in 1965. It prohibited the use of literacy tests as a part of the voter registration process.

Watts

A district in Los Angeles where a six day race riot occurred. The riot showed that many blacks were becoming disillusioned with peaceful means.

Rachel Carson

Rachel Carson was a marine biologist that wrote and published Silent Spring. Her book addressed her concerns on the environmental hazards of pesticides, bringing attention to the environment.

Betty Friedan

She was an American feminist who wrote The Feminine Mystique. Her book brought attention to the feminist movement and, she founded the National Organization for Women.

Barry Goldwater

An American senator for Arizona who ran against Johnson for president. His extreme conservatism scared many into voting for Johnson.

Great Society

The name given to Johnson's plan for American society that aimed for the lessening poverty, cleaning the environment, funding public education, and other leftist ideals. It expanded the American welfare and social insurance system gave the government new responsibilities as well as securing Johnson votes from the left.

Economic Opportunity Act

An economic legislation that was part of the Great Society. It created many social programs to help the poor.

Volunteer in Service to America

An organization created by the EOA that acted as the domestic version of the Peace Core. This increased employment opportunities for conscientious people who felt they could contribute

Elementary and Secondary Education Act

The Act is an extensive statute which funds primary and secondary education. This allowed the government to help those who cannot achieve a good education.

Medicare

A program part of the Great Society that provided medicine for the elderly. It made a significant step for social legislation and helped establish the growing population of the elderly as a pressure group.

Medicaid

A program that provides health care insurance to low-income or disabled persons. It helped those who were disadvantaged economically.

Ralph Nader

A leftist American politician who promotes the environment, fair consumerism, and social welfare programs. His book Unsafe at Any Speed brought attention to the lack of safety in American automobiles.

National Organization for Women

A major feminist organization founded in the 1960s. The organization marked the coming of the feminists, calling for an end to sexual discrimination.

Phyllis Schlafly

A conservative female political activist. She stopped the ERA from being passed, seeing that it would hinder women more than it would help them.

Equal Rights Amendment

A proposed amendment that would ban any discrimination based on sex. Although defeated, the popularity of the amendment showed how far the feminists had come.

Roe v. Wade

This was a court case where Norma McGorvey sued the state for the right for an abortion. The decision declared that a pregnant woman is entitled to have an abortion up until the end of the first tri-semester.

Gideon v. Wainwright

This was a court case where Gideon claimed in a state court he had a right to be represented by a counsel. The decision established that a defendant has a right to counsel in state trials.

Escobedo v. Illinois

A court case that dealt with the rights of the accused. It affirmed the "right to remain silent" and to have an attorney present during police questioning.

Miranda v. Arizona

This was a court case about criminal procedure where Miranda was convicted based on only his confession. The decision declared a set of specific rights for criminal defendants.

Milton Friedman

He was a famous American economist. He strongly promoted the idea of free trade and condemned government regulation and socialism.

Nikita Khrushchev

He was the Soviet premier after the death of Stalin in 1953 until the end of the Cuban Missile Crisis. His position as the head of the U.S.S.R. played a major part in defining Anglo-Soviet relations.

Dean Rusk

American Secretary of State from 1961-1969. Rusk was very militant, advocating military force in combating communism.

Robert McNamara

American Secretary of Defense from 1961-1968. He oversaw the general strategy of the military.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Government legislation passed after the attack on the U.S. destroyer in the Gulf of Tonkin. The resolution granted the president the use of whatever forced needed to help any member of SEATO without an official declaration of war.

Nguyen Van Thieu

He was a military commander and the president of South Vietnam. He was a corrupt as the leader of South Vietnam.

Vietcong

These were South Vietnamese communist revolutionaries. They took part in insurgent attacks against the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces, helping unify the nation.

Tet Offensive

The Tet Offensive was a military offensive launched by the Vietcong and the NVA. Although defeated, it showed that the NVA and Vietcong would continue to fight. Their attack caused many to doubt final victory in Vietnam.

Hubert Humphrey

He was Johnson's vice president. He was Nixon's opponent in 1968.

Andy Warhol

An American commercial illustrator and artist famous for his Campbell's soup painting. He was the founder of the pop-art movement, which like all other art movements in history reflected something back on the present society.

Earl Warren

A supreme court justice. He was in charge of the Warren Commission. In addition, he was very influential in getting the court to vote on liberal ideas.

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