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learning,

learning

any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs due to experience

behaviorism

school of psychology that accounts for behaviors in terms of observable events

conditioning

forms associations between environment stimuli and responses.
classical, operant conditioning are examples

regarding senstation and perception, which of the following statements is true

sensations involves the activation sense receptors;perception involves interpretation

the stimulus intensity that one can just barely detect is termed the ________ threshold

absolute

events that occur below the absolute threshold are termed ________ stimuli

subliminal

which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order in which light passes through the structures of the eye during vision.

cornea-pupil-lens-retina

in comparison to cones,rods

are more sensitive to light.

cones

= color

rods

= black/white

which of the following is not a binocular cue to depth perception

interposition

repeated exposure to sound over___dB can damage one's hearing;even infrequent exposure to sounds over______dB can produce hearing loss.

85;130

according to your text, how many basic types of taste are there?

six

proprioception( or kinesthesis) refers to

our ability to sense the positions of our body parts

__________ is a phenomenon in which one sensation may evoke multiple perceptions,even ones associated with different sensory systems

synesthesia

psychologist define_____ as the capacity to learn from experience, solve problems, and to adapt to new situations

intelligence

the practical problem alfred binet was trying to solve when he developed his intelligence test was

helping teachers better educating students of differing abilities

intelligence is positively related to

the number of neurons in the brain, the thickness of the cortex, the volume of the brain

a persisting issue or controversy in psychology that is especially relevant to the study of intelligence is that of

nature vs nurture

which of the following defines mental retardation

having an IQ below 70 and having trouble with basic skills

the IQ intellectually gifted individuals is_________ or above

130

which of the following in the best definition of eugenics

a misguided attempt to improve the human species through selective reproduction.

your text reports the case of a girl named genie who was exposed to virtually no language from the age of 20 months until the age of 13. in what way does genie case offer support for the notion of a critical period in language acquisition

even with intensive instuction, genie acquire only a very small vocabulary after the age of 13; furthermore, she never mastered the complexities of language.

as compared to people who speak only one language,bilinguals

show superior analytic skills, may be more cognitively flexible, demonstrate better cognitive functioning

psychologist have attempted to teach a number of nonhuman primates to communicate using american sign language, which of the following statements accurately reflect the linguistic accomplishments of these animals

they can learn the signs for a large number of words, they can combine signs into simple sentences, they can learn signs simply through observation.

psychologist use the term_____ to refer to a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior resulting from experience

learning

___________ is a type of learing in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that would elicit the same response naturally

classical conditioning

often , a conditioned response may be elicited not only by the original cs, but by a similar one as well. this known as stimulus

generalization

which of the following defines conditioned stimulus

something that creates a response only after conditioning.

classical conditioning applies mainly to_________ behaviors. operant conditioning applies primarily to__________

existing, new behaviors

negative reinforcement

leads to a increase in the probability to the behavior

reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called _______ reinforcers

primarily

learning that occurs internally and is expressed behaviorally only when there is sufficent motivation to do so is called ______learning

latent

bandura's "bobo doll" experiment s were intended to demonstrate

observational learning

the use of classical conditioning principles in advertising is most likely to be effective when

when we give little thought to choices.

absolute threshold

the smallest amount of energy a person can detect reliably ( 50% of the time)

hue

to color and related to wavelength

brightness

intensity
corresponds to amplitude of the wave

saturation

colorfulness
complexity of range of the wavelength

cornea

front part of the eye
protects eye
bends light rays towards lens

lens

located behind the cornea
focuses on the light by changing curvature

iris

muscles that control the amount of light that comes through the eyes

pupil

round opening surrounded by the iris
widens and dilates to allow more or less light

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