About Nutrition Chapter 12 & 14

Created by Christen_N_Simmons 

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12th edition

B

A child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of
milk.

red meat.

fresh fruits.

yellow vegetables.

A

What nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may give rise to a child with cretinism?
Answer

Iodine

Copper

Chromium

Molybdenum

C

What type of anemia results from iron deficiency?
Answer

Hemolytic

Megaloblastic

Microcytic hypochromic

Macrocytic hyperchromic

B

Which of the following is descriptive of iron deficiency and behavior?
Answer

The practice of pica may enhance iron absorption

Changes in behavior precede the appearance of anemia

The practice of pica may delay the onset of iron-induced behavioral changes

Adults are more resistant to iron-induced behavioral changes than children

B

Which of the following may result from iodine deficiency?
Answer

Gout

Goiter

Anemia

Hypertension

B

Which of the following is a property of selenium in nutrition?
Answer

It participates in the functioning of insulin

Severe deficiency is associated with heart disease in China

Significant food sources include dairy and unprocessed vegetables

It has no RDA but the estimated safe and adequate dietary intake is only 2-3 mg/day

B

Which of the following is an important function of selenium?
Answer

Helps blood to clot

Inhibits the formation of free radicals

Stabilizes the alcohol content of beer

Acts as a cross-linking agent in collagen

A

Which of the following is known to cause discolored enamel of the teeth?
Answer

Excessive fluoride in the water

Insufficient fluoride in the water

Excessive intake of simple sugars

Inability of the body to absorb fluoride

C

Zinc is highest in foods that also contain a high amount of
Answer

fat.

fiber.

protein.

carbohydrate.

B

Flaxseed is a rich source of
Answer

lutein.

lignans.

sulforaphane.

organosulfur compounds.

B

How does vitamin C enhance iron absorption when consumed in the same meal?
Answer

It activates transferrin

It keeps iron in the reduced ferrous form

It releases iron from the proteins in the stomach

It complexes with iron and promotes mucosal transport

A

Your aunt Thelma has been anemic for some time and was recently shown to be deficient in copper. Which of the following explains the association of copper and anemia?
Answer

Copper is required for hemoglobin synthesis

Copper plays a role in wound healing, which prevents excessive blood loss

Anemia affects synthesis of protoporphyrin, which interferes with iron absorption

Copper is known to protect against free radical formation, which prevents excess damage of red blood cells

B

Chromium deficiency is characterized by
Answer

hypertension.

hyperglycemia.

enlargement of the liver.

enlargement of the thyroid gland.

A

What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
Answer

Public water

Dark green vegetables

Milk and milk products

Meats and whole-grain cereals

C

Which of the following foods should be especially limited in the diet of individuals with hemochromatosis?
Answer

Dairy products

Fluoridated water

Iron-fortified cereals

Carbonated beverages

B

Which of the following is a feature of copper nutrition?
Answer

Absorption efficiency is similar to that of iron

It is involved in collagen synthesis and wound healing

Soft water may provide significant amounts in the diet

Deficiency is common in children of Middle East countries

A

What is the response of the thyroid gland to an iodine deficiency?
Answer

Increase in its size to trap more iodine

Increase in its size to trap more thyroxine

Increased release of thyroid-stimulating hormone

Decreased release of thyroid-stimulating hormone

C

Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency and behavior?
Answer

Erythrocyte iron levels fall before mental alertness is affected

Moderate iron deficiency promotes constipation and hyperactivity

Mild iron deficiency impairs energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis

Iron deficiency increases risk for infections that promote dysfunctional behavior

C

Commercially available zinc-containing lozenges are advertised to be effective against
Answer

fatigue.

vitamin A toxicity.

the common cold.

slowing of the BMR.

B

Absorption of iron from supplements is improved by taking them with
Answer

tea.

meat.

milk.

whole-grain bread.

C

Which of the following trace minerals is known to be involved in bone development?
Answer

Tin

Cobalt

Silicon

Barium

B

Conditions associated with zinc deficiency include all of the following except
Answer

altered taste.

kidney failure.

abnormal night vision.

poor healing of wounds.

C

All of the following are characteristics of copper in nutrition except
Answer

deficiency is rare.

legumes are a rich source.

absorption from foods is poor.

absorption is reduced by ingestion of zinc supplements.

C

Your cousin Emily is a vegetarian. Since you have just learned in your nutrition class that nonheme iron is absorbed less efficiently than heme iron, you want to make sure Emily is getting enough iron. What should you recommend Emily do to maximize her iron absorption?
Answer

Choose spinach as her main source of iron

Eat her nonheme iron sources with a glass of milk

Eat her nonheme iron sources with a glass of orange juice

Refrain from any major activity after eating to aid digestion/absorption of iron

C

Which of the following is a characteristic of chromium in nutrition?
Answer

A deficiency leads to hypothyroidism

Supplements are known to be helpful

Whole grains represent an excellent source

In the body, it enhances the action of ceruloplasmin

B

A person's highest bone density is achieved by around age (years)
Answer

18.

30.

55.

70.

D

All of the following are characteristics of phosphorus in nutrition except
Answer

high dietary intakes have no adverse effects.

about 85% of the body's phosphorus is located in bones and teeth.

the phosphoric acid in cola drinks has little effect on bone content.

the ratio of phosphorus to calcium in the diet is important for bone maintenance.

B

All of the following are common participants in the regulation of body fluid pH except
Answer

proteins.

oxalic acid.

bicarbonate.

carbonic acid.

B

What is the force that moves water into a space where a solute is more concentrated?
Answer

Buffer action

Osmotic pressure

Permeable selectivity

Electrolyte imbalance

B

Protective factors for osteoporosis include all of the following except
Answer

obesity.

female gender.

moderate alcohol intake.

having African American heritage.

D

Barbara has been healthy up to the past couple of weeks, but since then has been complaining of considerable muscle weakness. Her doctor just received the results of blood tests, which showed that she is deficient in potassium. If Barbara continues her current habits of consuming a diet low in potassium, for which of the following disorders is she most likely to be at risk?
Answer

Rickets

Arthritis

Low blood pressure

High blood pressure

B

Calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence of
Answer

fiber.

lactose.

phytic acid.

oxalic acid.

B

The strongest predictor for loss of bone density is a person's
Answer

sex.

age.

calcium intake.

blood estrogen level.

B

Which of the following is a major function of chloride?
Answer

Participates in wound healing

Helps maintain gastric acidity

Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte

Protects bone structures against degeneration

D

All of the following are known to have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis except
Answer

being thin.

being female.

having anorexia nervosa.

consuming a high-protein diet.

B

What is the major source of dietary sulfur?
Answer

Fats

Protein

Mineral salts

Carbohydrates

C

Which of the following shows the highest bioavailability for calcium?
Answer

Milk

Spinach

Broccoli

Pinto beans

C

Certain green leafy vegetables have a very low calcium bioavailability due to the presence of
Answer

low calcium content.

low vitamin D content.

naturally occurring binders.

high magnesium content, which lowers calcium absorption.

D

The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent
Answer

dehydration.

constipation.

osteoporosis.

hypertension.

B

Which of the following ages (years) is typically associated with people having the densest bone?
Answer

15

28

35

46

A

What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
Answer

Processed foods

Unprocessed foods

Natural salt content of foods

Salt added during cooking and at the table

A

All of the following are features of potassium in nutrition except
Answer

processed foods are a major source.

high intakes may protect against stroke.

per serving size, legumes are a rich source.

per serving size, bananas are a rich source.

D

On a per kcalorie basis, which of the following are the best sources of calcium?
Answer

Meats

Fruits

Breads

Vegetables

C

Which of the following is a feature of physical activity and bone health?
Answer

Dancing is not an effective activity for helping maintain bone density

Weight training improves bone density in young but not older women

Working the muscles places stress on bones which promotes bone density

Weight-bearing activities are effective in maintaining bone mass in adults but not in adolescents

C

Approximately how much water (lbs) is found in a 134-lb person?
Answer

34

65

80

105

C

Which of the following is the primary function of potassium?
Answer

Participates in wound healing

Helps maintain gastric acidity

Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte

Protects bone structures against degeneration

C

Which of the following is a major function of magnesium?
Answer

Transport of oxygen

Prevention of anemia

Catalyst in energy metabolism

Production of thyroid hormone

A

When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?
Answer

Sodium and chloride

Bicarbonate and sulfate

Calcium and magnesium

Potassium and phosphate

B

Which of the following is a feature of osteoporosis?
Answer

It is most common in men over 45 years of age

It has virtually no effect on blood calcium levels

It results from short-term deprivation of dietary calcium

It causes significant alterations in the blood levels of parathormone and calcitonin

B

Which of the following is a feature of sodium and health?
Answer

Salt sensitivity is generally rare in African-Americans

High sodium intake is known to promote calcium excretion

High sodium intake over many years leads to hypertension in most people

Sodium alone and sodium in salt have nearly equivalent effects on blood pressure

B

What is the body's most indispensable nutrient?
Answer

Fat

Water

Protein

Glucose

A

Why are salt tablets generally not recommended for people engaged in physical activity?
Answer

They can induce dehydration

They suppress the thirst mechanisms

They may lead to complete kidney failure

They reduce blood glucose concentration

B

Abnormally low blood sodium concentration is known specifically as
Answer

hypertension.

hyponatremia.

hyperkalemia.

water intoxication.

B

What percentage of a person's total sodium intake derives from naturally occurring food sodium?
Answer

0

10

50

80

D

Which of the following are good sources of dietary calcium?
Answer

Fruits

Breads

Enriched grains

Certain green vegetables

A

In what decade of life does osteoporosis first begin in men and women?
Answer

Fourth

Fifth

Sixth

Seventh

B

What is another term for hypertension?
Answer

High blood sodium

High blood pressure

Excessive mental stress

Excessive muscular contraction

D

All of the following are characteristics of chloride in nutrition except
Answer

deficiencies are extremely rare.

intake is related, in large part, to sodium intake.

it is necessary for maintaining electrolyte balance of body fluids.

the recommended intake has recently been set at 10 mg/kg body weight.

C

Which of the following is a feature of calcium in the body?
Answer

High blood calcium levels correlate with tetany

Abnormal dietary calcium intakes promote calcium rigor

Higher calcium intakes correlate with lower body fatness

Efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption is similar for children and adults

C

How much sodium is contained in a fast-food deluxe hamburger that lists a salt content of 2.5 g?
Answer

100 mg

125 mg

1,000 mg

2,500 mg

A

Where is the majority of the body's magnesium found?
Answer

Bones

Teeth

Fatty tissue

Cells of soft tissue

B

Which of the following minerals would a bulimia nervosa patient be likely to lose in the greatest amount?
Answer

Calcium

Chloride

Potassium

Phosphorus

A

At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass?
Answer

30-40 yrs

40-50 yrs

50-60 yrs

60-70 yrs

A

Sam has recently been diagnosed with high blood pressure. His doctor recommended adopting the DASH diet plan. Along with including more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, he was also advised to reduce daily sodium intake to no more than 2000 mg. How much salt (g) would be allowed under Sam's restriction?
Answer

5

6.5

8

9.5

B

Your uncle Carlos has survived two heart attacks, and recently asked if he might be deficient in selenium, which he had just heard is essential to heart health. You are aware of his food habits and explain that his condition could not be the result of a dietary deficiency of selenium because
Answer

tap water is a source of selenium.

selenium is prevalent in most food groups.

he consumes legumes, a rich source of selenium.

he drinks fluoridated water, which increases bioavailability of selenium.

C

Which of the following foods provides the greatest amount of iron per serving?
Answer

Yogurt

Skim milk

Pinto beans

American cheese

B

Which of the following meats would be the best source of copper?
Answer

Chicken

Shellfish

Beefsteak

Hamburger

C

When eaten in the same meal, which of the following foods enhances the absorption of iron in legumes?
Answer

Nuts

Fiber

Oranges

Whole-grain breads

C

The most common tests to diagnose iron deficiency include all of the following measures except
Answer

size of red blood cells.

number of red blood cells.

DNA content of red blood cells.

hemoglobin content of red blood cells.

C

All of the following are known to reduce the absorption of iron except
Answer

tea.

coffee.

sugars.

phytates.

B

A child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of
Answer

milk.

red meat.

fresh fruits.

yellow vegetables.

C

Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency?
Answer

Blood erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels decline as anemia worsens

Iron supplements are not as effective at treating anemia as is proper nutrition

People with anemia generally become fatigued only when they exert themselves

The concave nails of iron-deficiency anemia result from abnormal ferritin levels

A

One of the thyroid gland hormones is called
Answer

thyroxine.

goitrogen.

thiostimulating hormone.

tissue stimulating hormone.

D

Zinc is known to play an important role in all of the following functions except
Answer

wound healing.

synthesis of retinal.

production of sperm.

oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

C

Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency and behavior?
Answer

Erythrocyte iron levels fall before mental alertness is affected

Moderate iron deficiency promotes constipation and hyperactivity

Mild iron deficiency impairs energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis

Iron deficiency increases risk for infections that promote dysfunctional behavior

C

Which of the following has been shown to improve absorption of iron from iron supplements?
Answer

Taking then with milk

Taking them with orange juice

Taking them on an empty stomach rather than with meals

Taking them in the form of the ferric salt rather than the ferrous salt

B

Which of the following individuals would most likely not need an iron supplement?
Answer

Two-year-old

Elderly female

Pregnant female

Adolescent female

D

Which of the following would most likely result from an excessive intake of iodine?
Answer

Diarrhea

Skin rashes

Dehydration

Thyroid gland enlargement

A

What population group is at the highest risk for iron overload?
Answer

Adult men

Adult women

Pregnant women

Adolescents

C

What is the average lifespan of red blood cells?
Answer

Two weeks

One month

Four months

Six months

D

Which of the following fruits are known to contain substances that inhibit the functioning of the thyroid gland?
Answer

Apples and pears

Lemons and limes

Avocados and mangos

Peaches and strawberries

B

All of the following are known to reduce the absorption of iron except
Answer

phytates.

MFP factor.

soybean protein.

tannic acid in tea.

B

Keshan disease results from a deficiency of
Answer

copper.

selenium.

manganese.

molybdenum.

A

The most common cause of iodine deficiency is
Answer

insufficient intake of iodine from foods.

overconsumption of other trace elements.

overconsumption of anti-thyroid substances.

pituitary deficiencies of thyroid-stimulating hormone.

A

All of the following are recognized symptoms of zinc deficiency except
Answer

anemia.

altered taste acuity.

impaired vision in dim light.

increased susceptibility to infection.

C

Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form?
Answer

Rice

Spinach

Chicken

Orange juice

D

All of the following factors are known to enhance the absorption of iron except
Answer

MFP factor.

organic acids.

ascorbic acid.

calcium from milk.

C

Which of the following is known to enhance iron absorption?
Answer

Tea

Coffee

Foods containing vitamin C

Foods containing vitamin E

B

What is the major cause of iron deficiency?
Answer

Blood loss

Poor nutrition

Hereditary defect

Parasitic infections of the GI tract

B

You have just been elected mayor of Smalltownville, where the major source of drinking water is from wells. What major health problem would be expected among the children of Smalltownville?
Answer

Goiter

Dental caries

GI infections

Hemochromatosis

A

Which of the following conditions is known to lead to copper deficiency?
Answer

Excess zinc

Excess protein

Insufficient iodine

Insufficient calcium

C

What organ is the chief regulator of the body's acid-base balance?
Answer

Skin

Liver

Kidneys

Stomach

A

After age, what is the next strongest risk factor for osteoporosis?
Answer

Sex

Tobacco use

Calcium intake

Physical activity level

A

All of the following are good plant sources of calcium for the body except
Answer

spinach.

almonds.

corn tortillas.

sesame seeds.

B

Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to
Answer

provide energy for cells.

provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.

regulate the transmission of nerve impulses.

maintain the blood level of calcium within very narrow limits.

C

Which of the following does not serve as a major regulator of fluid balance in the body?
Answer

Sodium

Chloride

Calcium

Potassium

D

What component of soy is thought to account for most of its beneficial effects on bone health?
Answer

Fiber

Protein

Calcium

Phytochemicals

D

Magnesium is known to be involved in all of the following except
Answer

blood clotting.

muscle contraction.

prevention of dental caries.

production of red blood cells.

D

Which of the following minerals is least likely to be deficient in anyone's diet?
Answer

Iron

Calcium

Chromium

Phosphorus

D

All of the following are known to have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis except
Answer

being thin.

being female.

having anorexia nervosa.

consuming a high-protein diet.

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