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Juvenile Justice System; R. Stewart, TVCC

Today, more than 90 percent of school-aged children attend school, compared to only _____ percent in 1890.

7

Which of the following groups is reported to have the highest percentage of dropouts in 2007?

Hispanics

Over time the overall drop out rate is:

decreasing

There are three independent views on the association between school failure and delinquency which of the following statements does not reflect one of these three views?

school failure is unrelated to delinquency

Academic tracking refers to:

dividing students into groups according to ability and achievement level

Which of the following statements about tracking and school failure is true?

studies indicate that non-college-track students experience progressive deterioration of achievement

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, about ______ students are killed at school each year.

35

According to the text, which of the following statements about kids who bring guns to school is false?

many of the kids that bring guns to school hang with peers who do not carry weapons

According to the profile developed by the U.S. Secret Service, school shootings:

involve shooters with a history of being bullied

According to the text, schools with fewer behavioral problems in the student body are characterized by:

high-achieving students

Policies that mandate specific consequences or punishments for delinquent acts and do not allow anyone to avoid these consequences are referred to as:

zero tolerance policies

According to the text, about _____ percent of schools use random metal detectors.

15

Police need _________________ before they can conduct a search, but educators can legally search students when there are reasonable grounds to believe the students have violated the law or broken school rules.

probable cause

____________________ is a form of expression protected by the First Amendment but not associated with actually speaking words.

Passive speech

True or False: Experts have concluded that many of the underlying problems of delinquency are connected with the nature and quality of the school experience.

True

True or False: According to the text, high school dropouts are more likely to stay out of prisons than those who have a high school diploma.

False

True or False: According to the text, almost half of all female dropouts left school because they were pregnant or had already given birth.

True

True or False: Family dysfunction increases the chances of dropping out of school among all racial and ethnic groups.

True

True or False: A Secret Service study found that over 50 percent of school shooters are minority-group members.

False

True or False: According to the text, only 25 percent of schools control access to school buildings by locking or monitoring doors.

False

True or False: According to the text, over 50 percent of students are bullied in school.

False

True or False: In the 1984 United States Supreme Court case New Jersey v. T.L.O. the court ruled that students were protected against unreasonable searches and seizures, but that school personnel are not bound by the same restrictions as police officers.

True

True or False: Only 9 percent of the chronic offenders in Wolfgang's Philadelphia cohort study graduated from high school, compared to 74 percent of non-offenders.

True

True or False: Delinquency has been associated with low self-control and impulsivity, traits that also may produce school failure.

True

True or False: Academic tracking is an effective method for providing academic success to all students in a school.

False

Which of the following is the most powerful natural stimulant?

Cocaine

The main active ingredient in marijuana is:

tetrahydrocannabinol

Crack is manufactured by using _________________________ to remove hydrochlorides to create a crystaline form of cocaine that can be smoked.

sodium bicarbonate

The most widely used drug amongst teenagers is:

marijuana

Derived from opium, __________________ is the most used narcotic in the United States.

Heroin

___________________ produce insensibility to pain and free the mind of anxiety and pain.

Narcotics

According to the text, ___________________ may be a factor in nearly half of all murders, suicides, and accidental deaths.

Alcohol

________________________therapy involves getting users to associate drugs with unpleasant sensations, such as nausea.

Aversion

_________________ are central nervous system depressants, and they produce loss of sensation, stupor, and unconsciousness.

Anesthetic drugs

The most widely abused anesthetic drug is phencyclidine, also known as:

PCP

__________________ are the most commonly used drugs of the barbiturate family, and they depress the central nervous system into a sleeplike condition.

Sedatives

Natural substances that produce vivid distortions of the senses without greatly disturbing consciousness are known as:

hallucinogens

Methedrine is the most widely used and most dangerous:

amphetamine

__________________ are lab-created synthetic drugs which are designed to at least temporarily get around existing drug laws.

Designer drugs

Which of the following was noted as a problem of school-based adolescent drug surveys?

the exclusion of the most drug prone users

According to the text, which of the following may be the most significant influence on long-term substance abuse?

peer networks

The view that the cause of substance abuse can be traced to a personality that has a compulsion for mood-altering drugs is known as:

addiction-prone personality

A _____________________ is a substance that leads to the use of more serious drugs.

gateway drug

The most recent report from the National Institute of Justice's Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring found that:

among juvenile detainees, almost 60 percent of the males tested positive for marijuana

According to the text, about ______ percent of youths who use more serious drugs started on pot.

95

A great effort has been made to cut off supplies of drugs by destroying overseas crops and arresting members of drug cartels. This approach is known as:

source control

Almost two-thirds of all admissions treatment facilities in the United States involved ______________________ as the primary drug of abuse.

marijuana

The _______________________ technique developed by Scott Henggeler directs attention to family, peer, and psychological problems by focusing on problem solving and communication skills.

multisystemic treatment

True or False: Heroin is the drug most commonly used by teenagers.

False

True or False: Alcohol-related deaths number one hundred thousand a year, far more than all illegal drugs combined.

True

True or False: The most widely abused anesthetic drug is phencyclidine, known as "goofballs", and it was originally developed as an animal tranquilizer.

False

True or False: Recent survey results indicate that drug use among adolescents is on the decline from peak levels in the 1990s.

True

True or False: According to the National Youth Survey, there is little if any association between drug use and social class.

True

True or False: Research on adolescent drug users in Miami found drinking with an adult present can be a significant precursor of substance abuse and delinquency.

True

True or False: The association between delinquency and drug use has been established in a variety of cultures.

True

Which state was the first to develop probation as a disposition of the court?

Massachusetts

Prior to the creation of the juvenile court, how were juveniles who violated the law treated?

they were treated as an adult

The most prominent of the care facilities developed by the child savers was the _____________________________, which opened in 1825.

House of Refuge

The doctrine of ___________________ allowed justice officials to place youths in restrictive settings, for the youth's own good, and without the legal protections afforded by the adult criminal justice system.

parens patriae

In their study of the early juvenile court in Memphis, Tennessee, Shelden and Osborne noted that more than 96 percent of the actions with which females were charged were:

status offenses

According to the text, which of the following statements best describes what children's legal rights were like during the period of the Child Savers?

none of the above are true

By 1930 about ______________ youths were placed out in rural homesteads by the Children's Aid Society.

150,000

The first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was created in 1874, and by 1900:

there were 300 such societies in the U.S.

From the court's creation in 1899 until the late 1960s, the burden of proof in a juvenile court case was:

preponderance of the evidence

Which of the following statements about the U.S. juvenile justice system is false?

in all fifty states and the District of Columbia, nineteen is the maximum age for a youth to fall under the jurisdiction of the juvenile court

Like adults, juveniles are protected against reasonable search and seizure under the ________________ and Fourteenth Amendments of the Constitution.

Fourth

If the youth is adjudicated delinquent, the court must decide an outcome or treatment approach; this decision is made during the:

dispositional hearing

According to the text, which of the following is the most commonly used formal sentence for juvenile offenders?

probation

Juvenile aftercare is similar to ____________________ for adults.

parole

Which of the following is not offered in the text as a potential benefit of teen courts?

increased effectiveness

True or False: Prior to the creation of the juvenile justice system, the poor, the insane, the diseased, and vagrant and destitute children were commonly housed in the same institutions.

True

True or False: Pretrial motions are not allowed in the juvenile justice system.

False

True or False: Efforts to ensure that juveniles are given appropriate treatment are consistent with the doctrine of parens patriae that predominated in the first half of the twentieth century.

True

True or False: Like adults, juveniles are indicted for a crime.

False

True or False: Head Start and Smart Start are examples of intervention programs that focus on teenage youths.

False

The ______________ system was the organization of men in early English society who patrolled areas at night to protect against disturbances and breaches of the peace.

watch system

What policing system was used in England prior to the Norman conquest and the establishment of the watch system?

pledge system

The first professional police force was established in 1829 in:

London

Which of the following statements about juveniles' views about the police is false?

all of the above are true

Crimes such as murder, rape, and ________________ are felonies.

robbery

The protection against unreasonable searches and seizures is contained within the ________________ Amendment.

Fourth

Juveniles are protected against "___________________" searches and seizures.

unreasonable

According to People v. Lara, juveniles can waive their Miranda rights, but the validity of the waiver is determined by the circumstances of each case; this illustrates the ______________________ doctrine.

totality of the circumstances

Police _________ is selective enforcement of law by authorized police agents, giving officers a choice among possible courses of action within limits on their power.

discretion

The FBI estimates that almost two-thirds of all juvenile arrests are:

referred to juvenile court

According to the text, which of the following is a source of police discretion?

all of the above

Which of the following statements is true regarding gender police treatment?

female teens are more likely than male teens to be arrested for status offenses

Decentralized police operations, direct engagement with the community, empowering line officers, and community partnerships are associated with:

community policing

Operation Ceasefire has two main elements: a direct law enforcement focus on illicit gun traffickers who supply youth with guns and:

an attempt to generate a strong deterrent to gang violence

True or False: The first organized police force was created in London in 1829.

True

True or False: Since the mid-1990s, the juvenile violence rate has increased substantially.

False

True or False: In felony cases, the police officer must personally observe the crime to place a suspect in custody or have probable cause to believe that a crime took place and that the juvenile did it.

True

True or False: Most juvenile codes provide broad authority for the police to take juveniles into custody, which implies a protective rather than punitive form of custody.

True

True or False: Most courts have held that the Fourth Amendment ban against unreasonable search and seizure applies to juveniles.

True

True or False: Since the mid-1960s, any incriminating statements arising from a "custodial interrogation" cannot be used at trial.

False

True or False: In a classic 1963 study, Nathan Goldman examined the arrest records of more than a thousand juveniles from four communities in Pennsylvania and concluded that the majority of the police contacts with juveniles were handled informally.

True

True or False: Over sixty percent of juvenile arrests are referred to a community-service agency.

False

True or False: Research indicates that a police officer is much more likely to take formal action if the crime is serious, if it has been reported by a respectable member of the community, and if the offender is well known to them.

True

True or False: The main difference between arrests of adult and juvenile offenders is the broader latitude police have to control youthful behavior.

True

True or False: According to the text, the use of community policing officers has increased significantly in the last few years.

False

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