Endocrine Glands, Hormones, Target Cells and Hormone Functions

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Human Growth Hormone

Gland: Ant. Pituitary
Location: Cartilage, bone, skeletal muscle, liver
Function: Stimulates secretion of hormones that stimulate body growth and metabolism

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Gland: Ant. Pituitary
Location: Thyroid Gland
Function: Stimulates growth of thyroid gland and secretion of its hormones

Follicle stimulating hormone

Gland: Ant. Pituitary
Location: Testes/Ovaries
Function: Stimulates sperm production; oocyte production and estrogen secretion

Luteinizing Hormone

Gland: Ant. Pituitary
Location: Testes/Ovaries
Function: Stimulates secretion of testosterone; triggers ovulation and stimulates secretion of estrogen and progesterone

Prolactin

Gland: Ant. Pituitary
Location: Mammary Gland
Function: Stimulates production and secretion of milk

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

Gland: Ant. Pituitary
Location: Adrenal Cortex
Function: Stimulates secretion of hormones by adrenal cortex

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

Gland: Ant. Pituitary
Location: Skin
Function: Darkens skin pigmentation

Antidiuretic Hormone

Gland: Post. Pituitary
Location: Kidneys
Function: Decreases water lost in urine by returning water to the blood

Oxytocin

Gland: Post. Pituitary
Location: Uterus and Mammary Glands
Function: Stimulates uterine contractions and milk ejection during suckling

Thyroxine

Gland: Thyroid Gland
Location: Most body cells
Function: Increases Metabolism and BMR 1

Triiodothyronine

Gland: Thyroid Gland
Location: Most body cells
Function: Increases Metabolism and BMR 2

Calcitonin

Gland: Thyroid Gland
Location: Osteoclast cells in bones
Function: Decreases blood calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclasts

Parathyroid Hormone

Gland: Parathyroid Glands
Location: Osteoclasts cells in bones
Function: Increases blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone matrix

Aldosterone

Gland: Adrenal Cortex
Location: Kidneys
Function: Decreases sodium and water loss in urine by returning sodium and water to the blood

Cortisol

Gland: Adrenal Cortex
Location: Liver, muscle and cells involved in body defenses
Function: Increases resistance to stress increases blood glucose levels, and decreases inflammation

Androgens

Gland: Adrenal Cortex
Location: Uterus, mammary glands, and other body cells involved in secondary sex characteristics
Function: Insignificant in males; increases sex drive in females

Epinephrine

Gland: Adrenal medulla
Location: body cells involved in fight-or-flight response
Function: promotes flight or fight response 1

Norepinephrine

Gland: Adrenal medulla
Location: body cells involved in fight-or-flight response
Function: promotes flight or fight response 2

Insulin

Gland: Pancreas
Location: Most body cells
Function: Decreases blood glucose levels by transporting glucose into body cells

Glucagon

Gland: Pancreas
Location: Liver
Function: Increases blood glucose levels by stimulating liver to break down glucogen into glucose

Estrogen

Gland: Ovaries
Location: Uterus, mammary glands, and other body cells involved in female sexual characteristics
Function: Stimulates development of female sex characteristics; helps regulate menstrual cycle

Progesterone

Gland: Ovaries
Location: Uterus, mammary glands and other body cells involved in female sexual characteristics
Function: Stimulates development of male sex characteristics; stimulates male sex drive; regulates sperm production

Testosterone

Gland: Testes
Location: Testes, muscle, and other body cells involved in male sexual characteristics
Function: Stimulates development of male sex characteristics; stimulates male sex drive; regulates sperm production

Melatonin

Gland: Pineal Gland
Location: Brain
Function: Helps to set biological clock

Thymosin

Gland: Thymus
Location: T cells
Function: Promotes maturation of T cells for the immune response

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