Chapter 38 Digestive & Excretory Systems Vocabulary

26 terms by bobbiethompson 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Calorie

unit that measures heat energy and the energy contents of foods

Carbohydrate

organic compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a ratio; major source of energy for the human body

Fat

an organic molecule that includes glycerol and fatty acids

Protein

nitrogen-containing organic compound composed of bonded amino acid molecules

Vitamin

organic compound other than a carbohydrate, lipid or protein needed for normal metabolism but that the body cannot synthesize in adequate amounts and must therefore be obtained in the diet

Mineral

inorganic element essential in human metabolism

Amylase

enzyme that hydrolyzes polysaccharides

Esophagus

tubular part of the digestive tract between the pharynx and the stomach

Peristalsis

rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in the walls of certain tubular organs

Stomach

digestive organ between the esophagus and the small intestine

Chyme

semifluid mass of partially digested food and stomach fluids that passes from the stomach to the small intestine

Small Intestine

part of the digestive tract extending from the stomach to the cecum; consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

Pancreas

glandular organ in the abdominal cavity that secreates hormones and digestive enzymes

Liver

large organ just above the stomach that produces bile, a fluid loaded with lipids and salts

Villus

folded projection that increases the surface area of the walls of the small intestine

Large Intestine

colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it

Kidney

organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter

Ureter

tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

Urinary Bladder

saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted

Nephron

blood filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney

Filtration

process by which a liquid or gas passes through a filter to remove waste

Glomerulus

small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where the filtration of blood takes place

Bowman's Capsule

cup-shaped structure in the upper end of a nephron that encases the glomerulus

Reabsorption

process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel

Loop of Henle

section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine

Urethra

tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body; in males, tube through which semen is released from the body

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set