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Nervous System

is the master controlling and communicating system of the body

Sensory Input

gathered information; stimuli that the nervous system receives from the external or internal environment

Motor Output

A signal is transmitted to organs that can convert the signals into action

Central Nervous System

consists of the brain and spinal cord. They interpret incoming sensory information and issue instructions

Peripheral Nervous System

the part of the nervous system outside the CNS, consists mainly of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord

Afferent/Sensory

consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory receptors located in various parts of the body

Efferent/Motor

carries impulses from the CNS to effector organs. These impulses activate muscles and glands

Somatic Nervous System

allows us to consciously, or voluntarily, control our skeletal muscles

Autonomic Nervous System

regulates events that are automatic, or involuntary, such as the activity of smooth and cardiac muscles and glands

Neuroglia

includes many types of cells that generally support, insulate, and protect the delicate neurons. "Nerve glue"

Astrocytes

abundant star-shaped cells that account for nearly half of the neural tissue. Form a living barrier between capillaries and neurons and play a role in making exchanges between the two

Microglia

spiderlike phagocytes that despose of debris, including dead brain cells and bacteria

Ependymal Cells

these glial cells line the cavities of the brain and the spinal cord. The beating of their cilia helps to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid that fills those cavities and forms a protective cushion around the CNS

Oligodendrocytes

glia that wrap their flat extensions tightly around the nerve fibers, producing fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheaths

Schwann Cells

form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers that are found in the PNS

Satellite Cells

act as protective, cushioning cells

Cell Body

is the metabolic center of the neuron

Dendrites

neuron processes that convey incoming messages toward the cell body

Axons

generate nerve impulses and typically conduct them away from the cell body

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