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The main function of myelin is to
a. form a protective coating over nerve axons.
b. affect the speed of nerve impulses.
c. block the reception of acetylcholine.
d. aid a nerve's receptivity to neurotransmitters by increasing the number of receptor sites available.

a. form a protective coating over nerve axons.

The part of the nerve cell specialized for conducting information is the
a. axon.
b. cell body.
c. soma.
d. neurilemma.

a. axon.

The cell body of a neuron is also called the
a. dendrite.
b. axon.
c. myelin.
d. soma.

d. soma.

Neurons are made up of dendrites, a soma, and
a.axons.
b.axles.
c.atoms.
d.axes.

a.axons.

Which of the following is NOT a part of a neuron?
a.axon
b.axon terminal
c.synapse
d.soma

c.synapse

The nature of a nerve impulse is primarily a/an __________ event; whereas, the nature of the communication between neurons is primarily a/an __________ event.
a.chemical; electrical
b.acetylcholine; catecholamine
c.dendrite; axon
d.electrical; chemical

d.electrical; chemical

Acetylcholine, epinephrine, dopamine, and histamine are
a.prescription-only drugs.
b.synapses.
c.neurotransmitters.
d.beta blockers.

c.neurotransmitters.

The conduction of a nerve impulse down the axon is called a(n)
a.ion potential.
b.action potential.
c.resting discharge.
d.synapse.

b.action potential.

Communication within a neuron is __________, while communication between neurons is __________.
a.chemical; electrical
b.electrical; mechanical
c.electrical; chemical
d.mechanical; electrical

c.electrical; chemical

The branching fibers of the __________ end in __________ and link with parts of other neurons.
a.soma; somatic membranes
b.nucleus; nucleic dampers
c.dendrite; dendritic arcs
d.axon; axon terminals

d.axon; axon terminals

After successfully running from the large, snarling, drooling grizzly bear that was running directly toward you, you pause to catch your breath and collect your wits. The physical symptoms you now experience are controlled by the
a.sympathetic nervous system.
b.parasympathetic nervous system.
c.central nervous system.
d.neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

b.parasympathetic nervous system.

An action potential actually occurs because
a.the interior of the nerve cell becomes positive.
b.the interior of the nerve cell becomes negative.
c.potassium ions enter the nerve cell.
d.sodium ions leave the nerve cell.

d.sodium ions leave the nerve cell.

The charge that exists across the nerve cell membrane is a result of differing
a.amounts of DNA and RNA.
b.types of neurotransmitters on either side of the nerve cell membrane.
c.types of neurons inside and outside the nerve cell membrane.
d.concentrations of ions on either side of the nerve cell membrane.

d.concentrations of ions on either side of the nerve cell membrane.

The part of the neuron that specializes in receiving messages from other neurons is the
a.axon.
b.myelin.
c.axon terminal.
d.dendrite.

d.dendrite.

Nerve cell bodies and dendrites are not the only locations sensitive to neurotransmitters. Receptor sites can also be found on
a.muscles and glands.
b.skeletal joints.
c.axon terminals.
d.all vital organs.

a.muscles and glands.

The channels that transport sodium and potassium within the axon are called
a.DNA and RNA channels.
b.membrane channels.
c.neurons channels.
d.ion channels.

d.ion channels.

Neurons conduct an action potential
a.when sodium is pumped out of the neuron.
b.when molecular gates open to allow sodium ions into a neuron.
c.when the electrical stimulation dips below -70 millivolts.
d.only if surrounded by a myelin sheath.

b.when molecular gates open to allow sodium ions into a neuron.

Neurotransmitters are primarily associated with the
a.synapse.
b.soma.
c.neurilemma.
d.production of ion potentials.

a.synapse.

Body cells specialized to carry and process information are called
a.neurotransmitters.
b.synapses.
c.ions.
d.neurons.

d.neurons.

Which is the best explanation of how a nerve impulse is carried from one neuron to another? The action potential or impulse
a.jumps the synapse similar to the way a spark jumps the gap in a spark plug.
b.causes the axon terminal to squirt out a chemical toward the next neuron.
c.causes the axon terminal to expand and touch a receptor site.
d.bursts open a gap in the wall of the next neuron's dendrite.

b.causes the axon terminal to squirt out a chemical toward the next neuron.

The fastest neurons can send impulses at about __________ miles per hour.
a.200
b.425
c.150
d.45

a.200

A nerve cell carrying information from your brain to muscles and glands is called a(n)
a.motor neuron.
b.effector cell.
c.connector neuron.
d.sensory neuron.

a.motor neuron.

The "emergency" part of the nervous system that prepares the body for "fight or flight" is the __________ branch.
a.sympathetic
b.parasympathetic
c.central
d.peripheral

a.sympathetic

The effect of mind-altering drugs may be a result of their
a.toxic effects on sensitive neural tissues.
b.ability to lower neural thresholds in brain tissue.
c.ability to imitate or block neurotransmitters.
d.stimulation of enkephalin production in regulator.

c.ability to imitate or block neurotransmitters.

A nerve impulse is also called a(n)
a.negative after-image.
b.action potential.
c.refractory energy burst.
d.resting energy burst.

b.action potential.

Muscles can contract because they are made up of
a.motor neurons.
b.effector cells.
c.connector neurons.
d.sensory neurons.

b.effector cells.

The "all-or-nothing event" refers to the fact that
a.nerve cells are continuously active.
b.action potentials occur completely or not at all.
c.an electrical current crosses the synapse completely or not at all.
d.all the neurons in a particular "lobe" of the brain fire or none of them fire.

b.action potentials occur completely or not at all.

A barefoot child steps on a bee, then jerks his or her foot back in response to the sting. This response has likely involved all parts of the nervous system EXCEPT
a.the brain.
b.the spinal cord.
c.motor neurons.
d.connector neurons or interneurons.

a.the brain.

The chemicals released at an axon terminal are called
a.axonic ions.
b.neural facilitators.
c.neurotransmitters.
d.synaptic facilitators.

c.neurotransmitters.

Neurotransmitters are released at the
a.axon hillock.
b.myelin sheath.
c.axon terminals.
d.telodendria.

c.axon terminals.

An action potential refers to the traveling of a nerve impulse along the
a.axon.
b.dendrite.
c.axon terminal.
d.cell membrane.

a.axon.

The role of the __________ nervous system is to relax the body and return it to a lower level of arousal.
a.sympathetic
b.parasympathetic
c.endocrine
d.somatic

b.parasympathetic

Electrically charged particles of the elements __________ are crucial in the transmission of the nerve impulse.
a.iron and sodium
b.iron and potassium
c.sodium and nickel
d.sodium and potassium

d.sodium and potassium

The autonomic nervous system contains two branches called the
a.spinal nerves and cranial nerves.
b.somatic and spinal systems.
c.sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
d.parasympathetic and spinal systems.

c.sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

__________ is the correct sequence of events in communicating a stimulus (such as stepping on a tack) to another neuron.
a.Stimulus - electrical impulse - neurotransmitter - receptor site
b.Electrical impulse - receptor site - neurotransmitter - stimulus
c.Receptor site - electrical impulse - stimulus - neurotransmitter
d.Receptor site - stimulus - electrical impulse - neurotransmitter

a.Stimulus - electrical impulse - neurotransmitter - receptor site

Information is first received by a nerve cell at the
a.axon.
b.nucleus.
c.dendrites.
d.telodendria.

c.dendrites.

In the nervous system, electrical charges are set up because of unequal concentrations of ions inside and outside the cell. This state is known as a(n)
a.resting potential.
b.equilibrium potential.
c.state of potential nerve energy.
d.action potential.

a.resting potential.

The function of the sympathetic nervous system is to prepare the body for
a."fight or flight."
b.returning to equilibrium.
c.maintaining vital bodily functions.
d.input from cranial nerves.

a."fight or flight."

The microscopic space between two neurons is called a(n)
a.enkephalins.
b.acetylcholine.
c.catecholamine.
d.synapse.

d.synapse.

A nerve cell carrying information from your eyes, ears, fingers, etc. toward the CNS is called a(n)
a.motor neuron.
b.effector cell.
c.connector neuron.
d.sensory neuron.

d.sensory neuron.

Emotional responses to a traumatic event are most directly under the control of the
a.somatic nervous system.
b.central nervous system.
c.autonomic nervous system.
d.cerebral cortex.

c.autonomic nervous system.

The fatty layer of tissue that gives many nerves a whitish color is called
a.myelin.
b.neurilemma.
c.neuropeptides.
d.endorphins.

a.myelin.

The soma is the part of the nerve cell that
a.serves as a specialized receiving area for information.
b.collects and combines incoming information.
c.carries nerve impulses over large distances.
d.forms branching connections at the end of each axon

b.collects and combines incoming information.

What effect do neurotransmitters from one neuron have on the next neuron?
a.They have no effect.
b.They excite it.
c.They inhibit it.
d.They may excite or inhibit it.

d.They may excite or inhibit it.

Many of the chemicals that affect the brain operate by
a.absorbing neural impulses.
b.imitating or canceling the effects of neurotransmitters.
c.changing the sodium balance in the synapse.
d.duplicating the effect of potassium in the nuclei.

b.imitating or canceling the effects of neurotransmitters.

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