Psychology Exam 3

324 terms by kristin_orne 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

The "we" aspect of our self-concept that comes from our group membership is our
A. egocentrism.
B. basic trust.
C. theory of mind.
D. social identity.

D. social identity.

Aaron cried when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church, and he was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of
A. insecure attachment.
B. egocentrism.
C. conservation.
D. habituation.

A. insecure attachment.

The ability to delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-range rewards is most clearly a characteristic of
A. convergent thinking.
B. savant syndrome.
C. divergent thinking.
D. emotional intelligence.

D. emotional intelligence.

The ability to delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-range rewards is most clearly a characteristic of
A. emotional intelligence.
B. divergent thinking.
C. savant syndrome.
D. convergent thinking.

A. emotional intelligence.

The ability to delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-range rewards is most clearly a characteristic of
A. savant syndrome.
B. divergent thinking.
C. emotional intelligence.
D. convergent thinking.

C. emotional intelligence.

The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.
A. conventional
B. preoperational
C. formal operational
D. preconventional

C. formal operational

The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.
A. preconventional
B. preoperational
C. formal operational
D. conventional

C. formal operational

Abner, a 70-year-old retired teacher, feels that his life has not been of any real value or significance. According to Erikson, Abner has failed to achieve a sense of
A. basic trust.
B. autonomy.
C. integrity.
D. intimacy.

C. integrity.

About ________ percent of WAIS scores fall between 85 and 115.
A. 30
B. 96
C. 50
D. 68

D. 68

According to Erikson, teens who suffer role confusion have not yet
A. experienced a sense of basic trust.
B. strived for a sense of competence.
C. achieved a sense of autonomy.
D. solidified a sense of identity.

D. solidified a sense of identity.

According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ________ morality.
A. postconventional
B. conventional
C. concrete operational
D. preconventional

D. preconventional

According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to
A. adhere to social norms.
B. distinguish between helpful and harmful behaviors.
C. experience object permanence.
D. reason abstractly.

D. reason abstractly.

According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ________ stage is to the ________ stage.
A. concrete operational; preoperational
B. concrete operational; formal operational
C. preoperational; concrete operational
D. sensorimotor; preoperational

C. preoperational; concrete operational

According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ________ stage is to the ________ stage.
A. concrete operational; preoperational
B. preoperational; concrete operational
C. concrete operational; formal operational
D. sensorimotor; preoperational

B. preoperational; concrete operational

According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
A. young children's exaggerated interest in themselves and their own pleasure.
B. the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view.
C. a failure to realize that things continue to exist even when they are not visible.
D. a sensorimotor need for self-stimulation, as evidenced in thumb sucking.

B. the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view.

According to Piaget, imagining an action and mentally reversing it would be an example of a
A. pruning process.
B. critical period.
C. mental operation.
D. sensorimotor action.

C. mental operation.

According to Vygotsky, parents who say "No, no!" when pulling a child's hand away from a cake are giving the child a tool for
A. self-control.
B. a secure attachment.
C. object permanence.
D. habituation.

A. self-control.

Activities such as jogging or swimming are forms of
A. relaxation.
B. stress appraisal.
C. aerobic exercise.
D. biofeedback.

C. aerobic exercise.

The address for obtaining tickets to a popular quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates ________ memory.
A. flashbulb
B. state-dependent
C. echoic
D. iconic

D. iconic

Addressing stressors with problem-focused coping would be most characteristic of those with
A. a fight-or-flight reaction.
B. a pessimistic outlook.
C. a Type B personality.
D. personal control.

D. personal control.

Addressing stressors with problem-focused coping would be most characteristic of those with
A. a Type B personality.
B. a pessimistic outlook.
C. personal control.
D. a fight-or-flight reaction.

C. personal control.

Aerobic exercise is associated with
A. decreased levels of serotonin and increased levels of the endorphins.
B. increased levels of serotonin and decreased levels of the endorphins.
C. decreased levels of serotonin and decreased levels of the endorphins.
D. increased levels of serotonin and increased levels of the endorphins.

D. increased levels of serotonin and increased levels of the endorphins.

Aerobic exercise programs during late adulthood stimulate improvement in
A. object permanence.
B. menarche.
C. memory.
D. basic trust.

C. memory.

After being asked to remember three consonants, participants in a study by Peterson and Peterson counted aloud backward by threes to prevent
A. source amnesia.
B. encoding failure.
C. chunking.
D. rehearsal.

D. rehearsal.

After having brain surgery to stop severe seizures, Henry Molaison could recall events he experienced prior to the surgery but was unable to form new conscious memories. Molaison's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates
A. proactive interference.
B. retroactive interference.
C. retrograde amnesia.
D. anterograde amnesia.

D. anterograde amnesia.

After his last drinking spree, Fakim hid a half-empty liquor bottle. He couldn't remember where he hid it until he started drinking again. Fakim's pattern of recall best illustrates
A. state-dependent memory.
B. the spacing effect.
C. the serial position effect.
D. source misattribution.

A. state-dependent memory.

After identifying an ethnically blended face as Asian rather than as Caucasian, Belgian students recalled the face as more closely resembling their ________ of an Asian face.
A. fixation
B. heuristic
C. prototype
D. algorithm

C. prototype

After living together for a year, Sylvia and Yefim have decided to marry. Research on premarital cohabitation most strongly suggests that
A. their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of being successful.
B. they have more positive attitudes toward the institution of marriage than the average couple.
C. most of their college friends and acquaintances have viewed their cohabitation negatively.
D. their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of ending in divorce.

D. their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of ending in divorce.

After long-term potentiation has occurred
A. sending neurons release their neurotransmitters more easily.
B. you more readily forget facts that you once knew.
C. a receiving neuron's receptor sites are reduced.
D. it takes longer to process new information.

A. sending neurons release their neurotransmitters more easily.

After stockbrokers who lived alone had adopted a pet cat or dog, they were able to face stress with less ________ than their counterparts without pets.
A. blood pressure increase
B. problem-focused coping
C. emotion-focused coping
D. production of lymphocytes

A. blood pressure increase

After watching a happy film, patients' happy emotion persisted even though they could not consciously recall the film. These patients had suffered damage to the
A. amygdala.
B. basal ganglia.
C. hippocampus.
D. cerebellum.

C. hippocampus.

AIDS is caused by a ________ infection spread primarily through ________.
A. bacterial; airborne molecules
B. viral; airborne molecules
C. viral; the exchange of bodily fluids
D. bacterial; the exchange of bodily fluids

C. viral; the exchange of bodily fluids

Alex experiences little stress because he expects things to work out the way he wants them to. This best illustrates the value of
A. optimism.
B. spontaneous remission.
C. a Type A personality.
D. the general adaptation syndrome.

A. optimism.

An algorithm is a
A. testing method involving trial and error.
B. methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
C. simple thinking strategy for making decisions quickly and efficiently.
D. automatic, intuitive judgment.

B. methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.

An algorithm is a
A. testing method involving trial and error.
B. methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
C. simple thinking strategy for making decisions quickly and efficiently.
D. automatic, intuitive judgment.

B. methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.

Although Kaylee agreed with a particular politician's policies and position statements, her unconscious gut reaction to his slightly high-pitched voice led her to vote for the opposition candidate. This best illustrates the impact of
A. confirmation bias.
B. belief perseverance.
C. intuition.
D. a critical period.

C. intuition.

Although Nicole scored well above average on an academic aptitude test, she frequently loses her temper and needlessly antagonizes even her best friends. Her behavior best illustrates a low level of
A. the g factor.
B. convergent thinking.
C. analytical thinking.
D. emotional intelligence.

D. emotional intelligence.

Among Americans scoring in the top 1 in 10,000 on the ________ at age 12 or 13, more than half have earned doctorates.
A. WAIS
B. SAT
C. Stanford-Binet
D. WISC

B. SAT

Andrea's physician has suggested that a program of relaxation training would provide the best treatment for her high blood pressure. The physician probably considers Andrea's hypertension to be a(n) ________ illness.
A. carcinogenic
B. psychophysiological
C. immune deficiency
D. respiratory

B. psychophysiological

Anger is the toxic core of
A. problem focused coping.
B. the Type A personality.
C. emotion-focused coping.
D. the Type B personality.

B. the Type A personality.

Aptitude tests are to ________ as achievement tests are to ________.
A. past competence; current interests
B. future performance; current competence
C. current competence; future performance
D. current interests; past competence

B. future performance; current competence

As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Andre's false recollection best illustrates
A. source amnesia.
B. mood-congruent memory.
C. implicit memory.
D. proactive interference.

A. source amnesia.

As compared with the production of egg cells, sperm cell production
A. begins later in life.
B. involves a jellylike outer covering.
C. begins earlier in life.
D. involves differentiation prior to fusion with the egg.

A. begins later in life.

As compared with the production of egg cells, sperm cell production
A. involves differentiation prior to fusion with the egg.
B. involves a jellylike outer covering.
C. begins later in life.
D. begins earlier in life.

C. begins later in life.

As he attempted to spell the word receive, Tim reminded himself "i before e except after c." Tim's self-reminder best illustrates the use of
A. insight.
B. a heuristic.
C. trial and error.
D. an algorithm.

B. a heuristic.

As he attempted to spell the word receive, Tim reminded himself "i before e except after c." Tim's self-reminder best illustrates the use of
A. trial and error.
B. a heuristic.
C. insight.
D. an algorithm.

B. a heuristic.

As people progress into late adulthood, they increasingly use words that convey ________ emotions, and the amygdala shows diminishing activity in response to ________ events.
A. negative; negative
B. positive; positive
C. positive; negative
D. negative; positive

C. positive; negative

As teens mature, the growth of myelin facilitates
A. the birth of new nerve cells in the hippocampus.
B. feelings of attraction toward those of the opposite (or the same) sex.
C. the development of secondary sex characteristics.
D. communication between the frontal lobes and other brain regions.

D. communication between the frontal lobes and other brain regions.

At age 12, Sean is happy, self-reliant, and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that Sean's parents are
A. permissive.
B. conservative.
C. authoritarian.
D. authoritative.

D. authoritative.

Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as
A. spontaneous remission.
B. psychoneuroimmunology.
C. problem-focused coping.
D. biofeedback.

C. problem-focused coping.

Authoritative parents are likely to have children who
A. have high self-esteem and are self-reliant.
B. are rebellious and have low self-esteem.
C. have high self-esteem but are somewhat dependent.
D. are obedient but have low self-esteem.

A. have high self-esteem and are self-reliant.

Aviad, a 50-year-old banking executive and Type A personality, recently suffered a serious heart attack. To prevent a recurrence, Aviad would probably benefit most from
A. early retirement.
B. pain control medication.
C. relaxation training.
D. acupuncture therapies.

C. relaxation training.

Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ________ morality.
A. preconventional; conventional
B. preconventional; postconventional
C. conventional; preconventional
D. conventional; postconventional

A. preconventional; conventional

An awareness of your distinctive status as an international student in a university far from your homeland best illustrates a sense of
A. postconventional morality.
B. insecure attachment.
C. stranger anxiety.
D. social identity.

D. social identity.

Babies are born with several reflexes for getting food. One of these is to
A. open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.
B. turn the head away from a cloth placed over the face.
C. withdraw a limb to escape pain.
D. look longer at facelike images.

A. open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.

A belief that adult personality is completely determined in early childhood would be most relevant to the issue of
A. stability and change.
B. conception and prenatal development.
C. nature and nurture.
D. cognition and morality.

A. stability and change.

The best predictor of a couple's marital satisfaction is the
A. ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other.
B. experience or nonexperience of a prior marriage.
C. frequency of their sexual intimacy.
D. intensity of their passionate feelings.

A. ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other.

Between the middle of the last century and the early years of the current century
A. human birthrates have increased and life expectancy at birth has increased.
B. human birthrates have decreased and life expectancy at birth has decreased.
C. human birthrates have increased and life expectancy at birth has decreased.
D. human birthrates have decreased and life expectancy at birth has increased.

D. human birthrates have decreased and life expectancy at birth has increased.

Block design puzzles are used in one of the subtests of the
A. WAIS.
B. GRE.
C. Stanford-Binet.
D. SAT Reasoning Test.

A. WAIS.

Brain scans indicate that smart people
A. demonstrate no greater fluid intelligence than the average person.
B. require less energy to solve problems than the average person.
C. have more gray matter but less white matter than the average person.
D. have smaller parietal lobes than the average person.

B. require less energy to solve problems than the average person.

Brain size (adjusted for body size) is ________ correlated with intelligence. The speed of taking in perceptual information is ________ correlated with intelligence.
A. positively; positively
B. positively; negatively
C. negatively; negatively
D. negatively; positively

A. positively; positively

Branden is so apathetic about his occupational future that within two years of his high school graduation he had already been fired by four different employers. According to Erikson, Branden best illustrates
A. role confusion.
B. the curse of knowledge.
C. preconventional morality.
D. egocentrism.

A. role confusion.

British civil service workers in executive positions live longer than those in clerical positions. This best illustrates the value of
A. perceived control.
B. the general adaptation syndrome.
C. spontaneous remission.
D. emotion-focused coping.

A. perceived control.

Business managers are often overly confident of their own hiring ability because they are more likely to monitor the successes of people they hired than the achievements of those they rejected. This illustrates that overconfidence may be facilitated by
A. an algorithm.
B. the framing effect.
C. prototypes.
D. confirmation bias.

D. confirmation bias.

By activating the amygdala, stress hormones facilitate
A. the misinformation effect.
B. long-term potentiation.
C. source amnesia.
D. repression.

B. long-term potentiation.

By learning to classify cats and dogs, monkeys demonstrate a capacity to form
A. concepts.
B. algorithms.
C. intuitions.
D. heuristics.

A. concepts.

Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is Cameron most likely experiencing?
A. alarm reaction
B. exhaustion
C. resistance
D. adjustment

A. alarm reaction

Cheri doesn't remember that she got sick after eating oatmeal on several occasions in early childhood. However, whenever she smells oatmeal she experiences a classically conditioned feeling of nausea. Cheri's conditioned reaction indicates that she retains a(n) ________ memory.
A. flashbulb
B. iconic
C. echoic
D. implicit

D. implicit

A child's temperament is likely to be
A. a reflection of his or her thinking.
B. a product of parenting style.
C. stable over time.
D. difficult to observe.

C. stable over time.

Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if they rehearse the meanings of the Latin words. This best illustrates the value of
A. deep processing.
B. iconic memory.
C. procedural memory.
D. the peg-word system.

A. deep processing.

Children's sense that their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of
A. object permanence.
B. maturation.
C. accommodation.
D. secure attachment.

D. secure attachment.

Compared with Gardner, Sternberg has identified ______ independent dimensions of intelligence and his forms of intelligence have been ______ reliably measured.
A. more; more
B. fewer; more
C. fewer; less
D. more; less

B. fewer; more

Compared with men, women have ________ immune systems, and they are ________ susceptible to lupus and multiple sclerosis.
A. stronger; less
B. weaker; more
C. stronger; more
D. weaker; less

C. stronger; more

Compared with others their own age, children who form a positive self-concept are more likely to be
A. sociable.
B. egocentric.
C. habituated.
D. obedient.

A. sociable.

Compared with their counterparts in more collectivist countries, 17-year-olds in North America are more likely to experience
A. romantic relationships.
B. a critical period.
C. infantile amnesia.
D. social identity.

D. social identity.

Compared with their counterparts in more collectivist countries, 17-year-olds in North America are more likely to experience
A. romantic relationships.
B. infantile amnesia.
C. a critical period.
D. social identity.

D. social identity.

Compared with their counterparts of 40 years ago, American men today are marrying
A. at an older age and American women are marrying at an older age.
B. at an older age and American women are marrying at a younger age.
C. at a younger age and American women are marrying at a younger age.
D. at a younger age and American women are marrying at an older age.

A. at an older age and American women are marrying at an older age.

Compared with traditional college entrance exams, assessments that include tests of Sternberg's three intelligences reveal ________ ethnic group differences in intelligence and ________ accurate prediction of American students' first-year grades
A. increased; more
B. increased; less
C. reduced; less
D. reduced; more

D. reduced; more

Compared with when she was an adolescent, elderly Mrs. Packer is likely to experience a sad mood with
A. less intensity and for a longer time.
B. more intensity and for a shorter time.
C. more intensity and for a longer time.
D. less intensity and for a shorter time.

A. less intensity and for a longer time.

Compared with when she was an adolescent, elderly Mrs. Packer is likely to experience a sad mood with
A. more intensity and for a shorter time.
B. less intensity and for a shorter time.
C. more intensity and for a longer time.
D. less intensity and for a longer time.

D. less intensity and for a longer time.

Comparing the average performance of the initial WAIS standardization sample with the average performance of the most recent WAIS standardization sample provides convincing evidence of
A. the Flynn effect.
B. intrinsic motivation.
C. content validity.
D. the g factor.

A. the Flynn effect.

Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure best illustrates
A. motivated forgetting.
B. source amnesia.
C. the spacing effect.
D. the serial position effect.

A. motivated forgetting.

The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to
A. overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
B. judge the likelihood of events on the basis of how easily we can remember examples of them.
C. make judgments in a very inefficient, time-consuming fashion.
D. search for information that supports our preconceptions.

D. search for information that supports our preconceptions.

A conscious memory of the name of the first president of the United States is a(n) ________ memory.
A. state-dependent
B. procedural
C. explicit
D. iconic

C. explicit

Conscious rehearsal of what you just heard a friend tell you requires
A. implicit memory.
B. deep processing.
C. working memory.
D. automatic processing.

C. working memory.

Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as "75 percent lean" than to ground beef described as "25 percent fat." This illustrates that consumer reactions are influenced by
A. belief perseverance.
B. confirmation bias.
C. framing.
D. the availability heuristic.

C. framing.

The correlation between academic success and intelligence test scores will be LOWEST if computed for a group of individuals whose scores range between
A. 70 and 130.
B. 100 and 145.
C. 55 and 100.
D. 85 and 115.

D. 85 and 115.

The correlation between religious involvement and life expectancy best illustrates the
A. general adaptation syndrome.
B. faith factor.
C. Type A personality.
D. spillover effect.

B. faith factor.

The correlation between religious involvement and life expectancy is ________ among women and ________ among men.
A. positive; negative
B. negative; positive
C. positive; positive
D. negative; negative

C. positive; positive

A critical period is a phase during which
A. exposure to certain experiences is needed for proper development.
B. children frequently disobey and resist their parents.
C. parents frequently show impatience with a child's slowness in becoming toilet trained.
D. children become able to think hypothetically and reason abstractly.

A. exposure to certain experiences is needed for proper development.

Daily pressures compounded by racism and prejudice take a toll on many African-Americans in the form of
A. biofeedback.
B. high blood pressure.
C. spontaneous remission.
D. natural killer cells.

B. high blood pressure.

Damage to the hippocampus would most likely interfere with a person's ability to learn
A. to ride a bike.
B. a classically conditioned fear response.
C. to eat with a fork.
D. the names of newly introduced people.

D. the names of newly introduced people.

Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it's easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of
A. the availability heuristic.
B. framing.
C. overconfidence.
D. confirmation bias.

A. the availability heuristic.

Dental students healed more slowly from punch wounds received three days prior to a major exam than from punch wounds received during their summer vacation. The slower healing prior to a major exam is best explained by the students' temporarily reduced production of
A. telomeres.
B. lymphocytes.
C. norepinephrine.
D. glucocorticoids

B. lymphocytes

Depression increases the risk of death, especially death from
A. multiple sclerosis.
B. coronary heart disease.
C. stomach cancer.
D. respiratory infections.

B. coronary heart disease.

Despite very stressful events in his life, Mark has been able to maintain good health. This is because of his persistent optimism and the emotional support of his family. An integrated understanding of Mark's well-being is most clearly provided by
A. personal control.
B. a biopsychosocial approach.
C. the relative deprivation principle.
D. the general adaptation syndrome.

B. a biopsychosocial approach.

The development stage of adolescence is likely to be most brief in cultures where teens are
A. financially self-supporting.
B. experiencing role confusion.
C. seldom married.
D. egocentric.

A. financially self-supporting.

The development stage of adolescence is likely to be most brief in cultures where teens are
A. seldom married.
B. egocentric.
C. experiencing role confusion.
D. financially self-supporting.

D. financially self-supporting.

Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life span.
A. genetic
B. social
C. zygotic
D. embryonic

B. social

Those diagnosed with an intellectual disability score approximately 70 or below on an intelligence test and also demonstrate a limitation in
A. intrinsic motivation.
B. hybrid vigor.
C. physical health.
D. adaptive behavior.

D. adaptive behavior.

Distinguishing between very gradual and very abrupt developmental changes over the life span is most central to the major issue of
A. stability and change.
B. prenatal and postnatal development.
C. continuity and stages.
D. nature and nurture.

C. continuity and stages.

The distribution of intelligence test scores in the general population forms a bell-shaped pattern. This pattern is called a
A. standardization sample.
B. reliability coefficient.
C. normal curve.
D. factor analysis.

C. normal curve.

Dr. Birkin's major research interest is the development of motor skills in children. It is most likely that Dr. Birkin is a ________ psychologist.
A. cognitive
B. biological
C. psychodynamic
D. developmental

D. developmental

During her psychology test, Kelsey could not remember the meaning of the term proactive interference. Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the fourth line of a left-hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of
A. automatic processing.
B. deep processing.
C. mnemonics.
D. sensory memory.

A. automatic processing.

During meditative relaxation, a part of the ________ lobe that tracks where we are in space is ________ active than usual.
A. frontal; less
B. frontal; more
C. parietal; more
D. parietal; less

D. parietal; less

During meditative relaxation, a part of the ________ lobe that tracks where we are in space is ________ active than usual.
A. frontal; less
B. parietal; more
C. frontal; more
D. parietal; less

D. parietal; less

During prior school years, Charlie found it easy to get away with cheating on his tests. Now its not so easy so Charlie spends as many hours devising new ways to cheat as it would take him to study and perform well in an honest fashion. Charlie's shortsightedness best illustrates the consequences of
A. confirmation bias.
B. the availability heuristic.
C. an algorithm.
D. a mental set.

D. a mental set.

During prior school years, Charlie found it easy to get away with cheating on his tests. Now its not so easy so Charlie spends as many hours devising new ways to cheat as it would take him to study and perform well in an honest fashion. Charlie's shortsightedness best illustrates the consequences of
A. the availability heuristic.
B. confirmation bias.
C. a mental set.
D. an algorithm.

C. a mental set.

During the last few years, 75-year-old Mrs. Yamaguchi has gradually become so mentally disoriented that she can't find her way around her own house and often fails to recognize her husband. It is most likely that Mrs. Yamaguchi is suffering the effects of
A. habituation.
B. Alzheimer's disease.
C. menopause.
D. Asperger syndrome.

B. Alzheimer's disease.

During the time following the death of a loved one
A. those who talk frequently with others are unusually likely to prolong their own feelings of depression.
B. both men and women go through predictable stages of denial followed by anger.
C. grieving men are at less risk for ill health than are grieving women.
D. those who express the strongest grief immediately do not purge their grief more quickly.

D. those who express the strongest grief immediately do not purge their grief more quickly.

Educators who wish to affirm children's special talents and challenge them at the frontiers of their understanding advocate appropriate
A. factor analysis.
B. developmental placement.
C. hybrid vigor.
D. heritability estimates.

B. developmental placement.

Educators who wish to affirm children's special talents and challenge them at the frontiers of their understanding advocate appropriate
A. hybrid vigor.
B. heritability estimates.
C. factor analysis.
D. developmental placement.

D. developmental placement.

The effortful processing of information
A. refers to the process of getting information out of memory storage.
B. occurs less frequently among adults than children.
C. cannot occur simultaneously with automatic processing.
D. can become automatic through practice.

D. can become automatic through practice.

The egocentrism of preschoolers was most strongly emphasized by
A. Piaget's cognitive development theory.
B. Erikson's psychosocial development theory.
C. Harlow's attachment theory.
D. Rovee-Collier's infant memory theory.

A. Piaget's cognitive development theory.

The emotional bonding and mutual support that survivors of natural disasters provide to one another best illustrates
A. spontaneous remission.
B. the tend-and-befriend response.
C. the general adaptation syndrome.
D. biofeedback.

B. the tend-and-befriend response.

The emotional bonding and mutual support that survivors of natural disasters provide to one another best illustrates
A. the tend-and-befriend response.
B. spontaneous remission.
C. biofeedback.
D. the general adaptation syndrome.

A. the tend-and-befriend response.

Encoding words based on the appearance of the word's letters involves
A. deep processing.
B. the spacing effect.
C. flashbulb memory.
D. shallow processing.

D. shallow processing.

Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for
A. trust.
B. competence.
C. intimacy.
D. autonomy.

C. intimacy.

Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for
A. trust.
B. competence.
C. intimacy.
D. autonomy.

C. intimacy.

Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by
A. investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles.
B. seeking a lifelong romantic relationship.
C. adopting whatever values and expectations their parents recommend.
D. severing the emotional ties between themselves and their childhood friends.

A. investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles.

Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by
A. severing the emotional ties between themselves and their childhood friends.
B. investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles.
C. seeking a lifelong romantic relationship.
D. adopting whatever values and expectations their parents recommend.

B. investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles

The eugenics movement would have been most likely to encourage
A. selective breeding of highly intelligent people.
B. creation of special education programs for intellectually inferior children.
C. construction of culturally and racially unbiased tests of intelligence.
D. use of factor analysis for identification of various types of intelligence.

A. selective breeding of highly intelligent people.

Evidence suggests that ________ may foster neurogenesis.
A. aerobic exercise
B. meditation
C. optimism
D. social support

A. aerobic exercise

An experiment demonstrated that people who were better at forgetting irrelevant word pairs were good at remembering relevant word pairs. Their forgetting was adaptive because it reduced
A. the spacing effect.
B. interference.
C. semantic processing.
D. implicit memory.

B. interference.

Explicit memory is also known as
A. procedural memory.
B. mood-congruent memory.
C. declarative memory.
D. context-dependent memory.

C. declarative memory.

Females who have experienced stress related to father absence, sexual abuse, or insecure attachment experience ________ a few months earlier than average.
A. habituation
B. menarche
C. egocentrism
D. infantile amnesia

B. menarche

The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve
A. implicit memory loss.
B. repression.
C. interference.
D. encoding failure.

C. interference.

The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ________ is to an adolescent girl.
A. menarche
B. sexual intercourse
C. puberty
D. secure attachment

A. menarche

Following a catastrophic earthquake, residents of one community came together and provided each other with emotional support. This reaction best illustrates
A. the tend-and-befriend response.
B. the ABC program.
C. biofeedback.
D. spontaneous remission.

A. the tend-and-befriend response.

For a moment after hearing his dog's high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog's yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates ________ memory.
A. short-term
B. procedural
C. iconic
D. echoic

D. echoic

For the original version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as
A. mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.
B. chronological age divided by mental age and multiplied by 100.
C. mental age multiplied by 100.
D. chronological age subtracted from mental age and multiplied by 100.

A. mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.

For Type A individuals, exposure to stress is especially likely to inhibit organs such as the ________ from removing cholesterol and fat from the blood.
A. adrenal glands
B. liver
C. pancreas
D. thyroid gland

B. liver

Four-year-old Karen can't remember anything of the first few months of her life. This is best explained by the fact that
A. the hippocampus and frontal lobes are immature during early infancy.
B. experiences shortly after birth are a meaningless blur of darkness and light.
C. most brain cells do not yet exist at the time of birth.
D. the trauma of birth interferes with the early formation of memories.

A. the hippocampus and frontal lobes are immature during early infancy.

Four-year-olds are not completely egocentric and 14-year-olds can exhibit some understanding of conservation. This indicates that Piaget may have underestimated the
A. importance of early attachment experiences.
B. role of motivation in cognitive development.
C. importance of critical periods in early life.
D. continuity of cognitive development.

D. continuity of cognitive development.

Fourteen-year-old Lisa was asked, "What would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind?" She responded, "Those who had previously been blind would become leaders." Lisa's answer indicates she is in the ________ stage of development.
A. preoperational
B. formal operational
C. postconventional
D. concrete operational

B. formal operational

French toddlers preferred playing with chamomile-scented toys if
A. their fathers were devoted chamomile tea drinkers.
B. they had been diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome.
C. they had never before experienced the scent of chamomile.
D. their mothers had once used a skin balm with a chamomile scent.

D. their mothers had once used a skin balm with a chamomile scent.

The genes in muscle cells that are not activated by exercise produce lower quantities of proteins, which leaves us susceptible to
A. type 2 diabetes.
B. cardiovascular disease.
C. cancer.
D. all of these diseases.

D. all of these diseases.

The greatest number of deaths in Africa today result from
A. cancer.
B. AIDS.
C. strokes.
D. malaria.

B. AIDS.

A group of people of very similar age who are participants in a longitudinal study are called a
A. cohort.
B. syndrome.
C. factor.
D. quotient.

A. cohort.

Haidt's intuitionist perspective highlights the impact of automatic gut-level feelings on
A. egocentrism.
B. stranger anxiety.
C. moral judgments.
D. attachment.

C. moral judgments.

The high positive correlations between scores received on comparable sections of the SAT and GRE provide evidence for the ________ of these test scores.
A. validity
B. standardization
C. normal distribution
D. reliability

D. reliability

Homeopathy and herbal remedies are forms of
A. CAM.
B. emotion-focused coping.
C. biofeedback.
D. spontaneous remission.

A. CAM.

Howard Gardner identified a total of ________ intelligences.
A. three
B. five
C. twelve
D. eight

D. eight

Howard Gardner is most likely to agree that the concept of intelligence includes
A. intrinsic motivation.
B. behaving morally.
C. spatially analyzing visual input.
D. minimizing one's negative emotions.

C. spatially analyzing visual input.

If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a(n)
A. stress hormone.
B. telomere.
C. critical period.
D. teratogen.

D. teratogen.

If warmly supportive parents are especially likely to have children with high self-esteem, this would most clearly indicate that
A. warmly supportive parenting and children's self-esteem are correlated.
B. permissive parenting is more effective than authoritative parenting.
C. children's self-esteem stimulates warmly supportive parenting.
D. authoritative parenting is more effective than authoritarian parenting.

A. warmly supportive parenting and children's self-esteem are correlated.

Immune system cells that pursue and destroy diseased body cells are called
A. NK cells.
B. stressors.
C. endorphins.
D. carcinogens.

A. NK cells.

The importance of effortful processing for long-term retention is best illustrated by
A. repression.
B. implicit memory.
C. the testing effect.
D. the misinformation effect.

C. the testing effect.

In 8 to 10 seconds, the late memory whiz Kim Peek could read and remember the contents of a book page. Yet, he had little capacity for understanding abstract concepts. Kim's mental capacities best illustrate
A. savant syndrome.
B. Down syndrome.
C. emotional intelligence.
D. autism.

A. savant syndrome.

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set