Intro to Psy Exam # 2

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Which of the following is correct for people who are high in the need for achievement?

They look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them.

People who are always looking for a challenge may be high in the need for __________.

achievement.

Your heart is racing, your breathing is rapid, and your mouth is dry. What emotion are you experiencing?

It is not always possible to distinguish one emotion from another by physiological reactions only.

Bobby is a very active 5 year old compared to others in his class. He appears to seek a great deal of stimulation, and is very playful, curious, and explorative. Bobby's seemingly unlearned motives, which are likely to increase stimulation, are called __________.

stimulus motives

Emotion has been defined to have three elements. Please identify which choice below is NOT one of the three elements.

Cognitive dissonance for the exhibited behavior

Homeostasis is most like which of the following?

a thermostat

Extrinsic motivation is defined as ______________.

the pursuit of an activity for external reward

One factor in hunger seems to be the increase in _______, which causes blood sugar levels to eventually drop several hours after we eat.

insulin

Which of the following is NOT an acquired drive?

a drive to eat when hungry

Dora is experiencing positive emotions while Milly is experiencing negative emotions. If researchers are examining EEG recordings of their brains, where are they most likely to see increases in activity?

both a and b are correct

The part of the brain that seems to influence emotion is the ________________.

amygdala

Obesity is defined as the condition of being at least _____ percent over the ideal body weight

20

Which statement best reflects the James-Lange theory of emotion?

We see a monster, our hearts race, we feel fear

Which division of the nervous system is working when we experience emotions?

sympathetic division of the nervous system

Primary drives are ______.

unlearned

Jack said, "I want to rule the world." What type of need is this?

need for power

According to Maslow, a person who wants to become self-actualized must first satisfy __________.

primary needs such as food and safety.

The idea that bodily arousal and the experience of emotion arise in tandem forms the essence of ________.

Cannon-Bard theory

According to Carol Dweck, people with this type of control believe intelligence is changeable and can be shaped by experience

internal locus of control

Drive-reduction theory would say getting a haircut to look attractive is a (an) ___________.

aquired drive

Which of the following is a criticism of Maslow's theory?

There is no evidence that unmet needs become more important.

If there is a history of obesity in a family, each family member has __________ of becoming obese compared to people without such a family history.

doube or triple the risk

Things that attract or lure people to action are ______________.

incentives

Indiana Jones goes off to foreign lands in search of artifacts hidden in dangerous places and guarded by fierce protectors. Dr. Jones would be described as -----------in arousal theory.

foolhardy

Through pairing cartoon or movie characters with different food items, researchers have found characters can influence children's __________.

taste preferences

The research involving Alex the African gray parrot was based on the groundbreaking work of researcher _______________.

Pepperberg

Which example would most people take longest to identify as a fruit (even though it technically is a fruit)?

olive

Having a high IQ doesn't always guarantee success. Terman and Oden examined the most and least successful men in their sample of gifted individuals. The most successful were ___________.

more goal oriented and persistent

Culture-fair tests attempt to measure ______.

the intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was devised

Goleman has proposed that __________ intelligence is a more powerful influence on success in life than other forms of intelligence.

emotional

The basic units of sound are called __________.

phonemes

A test that gives similar scores for a person each time the person takes it is considered to be a __________ test.

reliable

Which of the following statements is true about infants?

By the time they are 9 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language they are being brought up in.

Which developmental psychologist theorized that concepts preceded and aided the development of language?

Piaget

The phrase "I tried" has ________.

three morphemes

Charles Spearman believed that intelligence is composed of ____________.

general intelligence and specific abilities

What problem-solving strategies don't guarantee solutions but make efficient use of time?

heuristics

When a test allows a person from one particular background to have an unfair advantage over persons from other backgrounds, it is called__________.

culturally biased

The concept of the confirmation bias specifically assumes that we are most likely to believe________.

information that agrees with our thinking

Which of the following is NOT part of the traditional definition of intelligence?

ability to be creative

A group of businessmen and women get together to try to solve the problem of decreased sales of their company's products. One of them suggests that they generate as many ideas as they can in a short period of time without being critical of any of them. This technique of stimulating divergent thinking is called _____________.

brainstorming

Shalissa is described as being tactful and able to manipulate situations to her advantage. She is probably high in ______________.

practical intelligence

According to Robert Sternberg, _______________ is best described as "street smarts," or the ability to use information to get along in life. People who have it know how to be tactful, how to manipulate situations to their advantage, and how to use inside information to increase their odds of success

practical intelligence

What three types of intelligence constitute Sternberg's Triarchic theory of intelligence?

analytical, creative, and practical

Research suggests we interact with __________ images __________ the way interact with physical objects.

mental; similarly to

___________ thinking works well for routine problem solving but may be of little use when a more creative solution is needed.

Convergent

People are termed gifted in terms of intelligence if their IQ is above _______.

130

The trial-and-error method of solving problems is also known as ______________.

the mechanical solution

Agatha Harkness-Smythe is determined to ban guns in the United States. This is a controversial topic and social scientists have debated whether the ownership of guns by citizens increases or decreases crime. Agatha could go to the library and look up studies on the linkage between guns and crime rates. Instead, Agatha just reads the local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies in which the "bad guy" used a firearm. Agatha is demonstrating ____________.

confirmation bias

A seemingly arbitrary flash "out of the blue," through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you "figured it out," is called ______.

insight

Which of the following is an example of telegraphic speech?

pet dog

In __________ syndrome, the 23rd pair of chromosomes is missing an X, resulting in short, infertile females.

Turner's

Which of the following terms is used to describe any substance, such as a drug, chemical, or virus that can bring about a birth defect?

Teratogen

Infants typically begin to make vowel-like sounds at around the age of ________.

2 months

Sheila was born a female with only one X chromosome on the 23rd pair. As a result she is very short, infertile, and sexually underdeveloped. With which disorder is she likely to be diagnosed?

Turner's

According to research conducted by Ridley (1999), how could individuals like Adolph Hitler, serial killer Ted Bundy, and unabomber Timothy McVeigh commit such acts according to the "nature versus nurture" debate?

Their behaviors are the result of the interaction of nature and nurture.

Abe just got his driver's license. He loves to speed around town going more than 20 miles per hour above the speed limit. He believes that he can speed through red lights due to his perfect timing. This is an example of ________.

personal fable

The emotional bond that forms between an infant and a primary caregiver is called_________.

attachment

The tendency of teenagers to feel that they are always "on stage" and that they are the center of everyone else's world, just as they are the center of their own, is a phenomenon known as ___________.

the imaginary audience

The placenta is ________________.

a specialized organ that provides nourishment and filters away waste products from the developing baby

Mary and Juan are twins who developed from two separate fertilized ova that were fertilized by two different sperm. What type of twins are they?

dizygotic twins

Humans have a total of _______chromosomes in normal developmental cases

46

By age 5, the brain is at __________ percent of its adult weight.

90

Juan and Carlos are identical twins. Juan was raised by his father and mother, and Carlos was accidentally placed with another family after a "mix up" at the hospital. At the age of 15, both boys "ran into each other" at a football game and noticed how they appeared to be "mirror images of each other." After proving they were twins by genetic testing, the families discussed some of the differences between the boys. Juan is very athletic and intelligent and excels in basketball but does not take school seriously and has F's in all subjects. Carlos is also athletic and intelligent, and excels in baseball and makes straight A's as a result of his strict home life and study routine. Although they are identical twins, what do you think accounts for the differences in their academic performance based on the research?

nurture

Megan just turned 32. She is keenly aware of biological changes that occur as she gets older. What's more, she measures the sensitivity of her senses and other physical characteristics by using sophisticated testing equipment. In which of the following areas is she likely to find some decline?

vision and hearing

In which of Piaget's stages does the child become capable of understanding conservation?

concrete operations

Simone's family does not have a lot of money. Simone's mom buys her clothing from the local super store. Simone believes that other students notice that she doesn't wear brand name clothes. This is an example of ________.

imaginary audience

The crisis of middle adulthood, according to Erikson, is __________.

generativity versus stagnation.

Saul believes in the Golden Rule and desperately wants people to view him as a good person. Most likely, he is in which level of moral development?

Conventional

Which type of attachment style is characterized by babies who do not seem to care very much whether the mother is present or absent, and are equally comfortable with her and a stranger?

Avoidant

Which of the following theories sees aging as a process whereby cells are assumed to have a limitation on the number of times they can reproduce to repair damage?

cellular clock theory

The prenatal period during which tremendous growth occurs and the organs continue to develop and become functional is called the _______________ period.

fetal

Ethan, a three year old, asks his mom to cut a pizza pie into twelve rather than eight pieces because he is "really hungry." On the basis of this example, it is most appropriate to conclude that Ethan ________.

does not understand conservation

On big moral issues, parents and teens tend to __________.

be in agreement

Which of the following describes the way in which monozygotic twins occur?

The egg is fertilized by a single sperm and then splits completely into two separate zygotes.

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