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cartilage

elastic substance attaching to the end of some bones

hematopoiesis

process of blood cell formation

joint

place where two bones come together

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

hormone that helps to maintain the proper level of calcium in the body

skeletal system

bony framework of the body

stem cells

cells in the blood from which all other cells are formed

Achilles tendon

tendon that connects the gastrocnemium muscle to the heel bone

collagen

hard protein substance formed when calcium and other minerals mix with osteoblasts and fibers to provide strength to tissues.

medullary cavity

central cavity of a bone

osteoblast

bone-building cells

osteoclast

bone-reabsorbing cells

osteocyte

mature bone cells made of organic and inorganic material, providing hardness to bone; maintains bone matrix.

epiphyseal plate (growth plate)

area at each end of a long bone responsible for bone growth; bone tissue replaces cartilage tissue, and the bone lengthens.

ossification

formation of a bone

bone marrow

organic material made of connective tissue and blood vessels that fills the cavities of bones; two types are red marrow, responsible for the manufacture of red and white blood cells, and yellow marrow, composed of fat cells and responsible for white blood cell production

bone matrix

fluids and collagen that make up bone tissue

compact bone

hard surface of all bone

elastic cartilage

yellow cartilage constructed of elastic fibers

fibrous cartilage

thick cartilage that connects bones to each other; found in invertebral disks.

foramen

hole of opening for passage of nerves, blood vessels, and ligaments

haversian system

structural unit of bone that receives nutrition and removes wastes

hyaline cartilage

translucent cartilage that covers the ends of bones; also found in locations such as the nasal septum and costal area

lamellae

thin layers of ground bone tissue arranged in patterns that determine bone type

sinus

air-filled cavity in a bone that reduces the weight of the bone

cancellous bone

spongy, porous bone that contains red bone marrow; has lattice-like formation

diaphysis

main shaft of long bones

epiphysis

expanded ends of long bones; growth line for long bones in children and young adults

long bones

bones found in upper extremities and lower arms and legs, determines height

metaphysis

growth center in children that lies between the epiphysis and diaphysis

periosteum

outer covering of bone that provides support of blood vessels that nourish the bone and provides attachment of muscles, tendons and ligaments

flat bones

thin, flattened bone found in the skull, ribs and scapula

irregular bones

bones having no distinct shape that make up the spinal column, sphenoid, and ethmoid of the skull, sacrum, coccyx, and the mandible

short bones

cube-shaped bones that appear in wrists and ankles

axial skeleton

bones in the central section of the body; skeleton of head, vertebrae, and bony thorax

cranium

skull, fusion of 8 cranial bones with 14 facial bones that protects the brain

hyoid bone

bone located in the neck that anchors the tongue

trunk

body, exept for the head and extremities

articulate

join together, as with bones, by means of a joint

auditory meatus

opening of the ear in the temporal bone

ethmoid bone

bone located behind the nose and eye sockets

fontanels

soft spots located between the cranial bones

foramen magnum

large opening at the base of the skull where spinal cord joins the brain

foramina

small openings in the cranial bones for nerves and vessels

frontal bone

bones that extends from the top of the eye orbits to the top of the head, forming the forehead

frontal sinuses

air-filled cavities located in the area above the eye orbits

maxillary sinus

air-filled cavity within the maxilla

occipital bone

bone that forms the back part of the cranial floor and covers the back part of the brain

paranasal sinuses

air-filled spaces within the skull

parietal bones

two bones that give shape to the top of the skill and extend to the sides

pituitary gland

'master gland' of the endocrine system

sella turcica

bone projection in the sphenoid bone that holds the pituitary gland

sphenoid bone

middle portion of the cranial floor that holds the cranial bones in place

sutures

immovable joints found in the head

temporal bone

bone located at the side of the skull

hard palate

roof of the mouth

lacrimal bones

bones that are part of the eye orbits situated alongside the nose

mandible

lower jawbone

maxilla

upper jawbone

nasal bone

bones that form the bridge of the nose

nasal conchae

facial bones above the roof of the mouth and walls of the nasal cavities

palatine bones

facial bones behind the hard palate that help to form the walls of the nasal cavity and the floor of the eye orbits

vomer

bone that forms the lower wall between the nostrils, nasal septum

zygomatic bones

cheekbones

atlas

first vertebra in the neck, supports the head

axis

second vertebra in the neck; serves as a pivot when the head turns from side to side

cervical vertebrae

first seven vertebrae located in the neck, C1-C7

coccyx

tailbone, below the sacrum

lumbar vertebrae

five vertebrae in the lower portion of the back, L1-L5

sacrum

five vertebrae after the lumbar vertebrae the fuse into one, S1-S5, located between the hipbones

spinous process

projection extending from the vertebral bone to serve as an attachment for the ribs

thoracic vertebrae

twelve vertebrae located in the chest area, T1-T12

thorax

chest area

vertebra

one of a series of bones that protect the spinal cord

vertebral column

flexible, curved, segmented structure composed of vertebrae that are stacked on one another

body

middle portion of the sternum or breastbone

costal cartilage

cartilage that attaches the first seven pairs of ribs to the sternum

false ribs

ribs that are indirectly connected to the sternum and are attached to the vertebrae

floating ribs

ribs attached to the vertebrae only and not the sternum

manubrium

upper portion of the sternum

ribs

flat bones that protect the lungs and heart; 12 pairs articulate to the thoracic vertebrae

sternum

breastbone

true ribs

ribs that attach directly to the sternum

xiphoid process

lower tip of the sternum

appendicular skeleton

bones in the upper and lower limbs and the girdles that attach these to the axial skeleton

acromion process

place where the ridge of the scapula and the clavicle join, the point of the shoulder

clavicle

collarbone

pectoral girdle

shoulder; attaches the arms to the axial skeleton

process

projection on or outgrowth of a bone

scapulae

shoulder blades

humerus

long bone of the upper arm

olecranon process

extension of the ulna that forms the elbow

radius

bone of the lower arm located on the thumb (medial) side

ulna

bone of the lower arm located on the (lateral) side (little finger)

carpals

eight small bones of the wrist

wrist

area between the lower arm and the hand

metacarpals

bones the form the hand

phalanges

bone that form the fingers (or toes)

acetabulum

socket where the femer joins the pelvic girdle

erect

upright

ilium

upper portion of the pelvic bones

ischium

lowest portion of the pelvic bones

pelvic girdle

bones that connect the leg to the axial skeleton

pubis

area that joins the hipbones together aneriorly

condyles

rounded projections at the end of a bone that form a joint

femur

thighbone; long bone of the upper leg

head

rounded or necklike portion of a long bone

patella

kneecap

trochanter

bony prominence of the femur that provides a place for muscle attachment

fibula

bone of the lower leg, lateral side

tibia

bone of the lower leg; shinbone

calcaneus

heel bone

cuboid

large bone of the ankle, a tarsal

cuneiforms

tarsal bones of the ankle

navicular

tarsal bone of the ankle

talus

tarsal bone of the ankle

tarsals

seven bones that form the hind part of the foot; ankle bones

longitudinal arch

skeletal structure that supports body weight and stretches from the heel bone to the phalanges (toes) formed by tarsals and metatarsals

metatarsals

long bones of the foot

transverse arch

skeletal structure that supports body weight and extends from one side of the foot to the other side; formed by tarsals and metatarsals

articulation

point where bones are joined together; joint

amphiarthrosis

form of articulation (joint) with slight movement; connected by cartilage

articular cartilage

thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones at the point where they come together

ball-and-socket joint

one bone with a ball-shaped head fits into a socket of a second bone

bursa

fibrous connective tissue filled with synovial fluid

condyloid joint

oval-shaped bone the fits into a concave bone

diarthrosis

joint with free movement; a hinged or pivot joint

gliding joint

joint that allows flat surfaces to move across each other

hinge joint

joint that only moves in one direction

ligament

tough fibrous band of fibers that connect bones to bones or support internal organs

pivot joint

joint that allows for rotation

saddle joint

joint shaped like a saddle that fits into a concave-convex socket

synarthrosis

joint with no movement; such as sutures of the head

synovial cavity

joint cavity filled with fluid

synovial fluid

fluid that reduces friction caused by joint movement

tendon

connective tissue that connects muscles to bones

abduction

motion that occurs when an extremity is moved away from the body

adduction

motion the occurs when an extremity is moved toward the body

circumduction

combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction; circular motion by a joint

eversion

turning outward

extension

motion that increases the angle between articulating bones

flexion

bending motion that brings two close bones together decreasing the angle between articulating bones

inversion

turning inward

pronation

turning downward

rotation

motion that occurs when one bone moves or turns on its own axis

supination

turning upward

orthopedic

pertaining to the treatment of bones and joints

ostealgia

pain within the bone

osteitis

inflammation of the bone

osteonecrosis

death of bone tissue

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