Digestive System (Mastering A and P)

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Enzymatic breakdown of which of the following compounds doesn't begin until it reaches the stomach?

carbohydrates
proteins
lipids

proteins

Which of the following enzymes is important for breaking down protein?

pepsin
amylase
lipase

pepsin

Which of the following enzymes is important for the digestion of fat?

pancreatic amylase
trypsin
pancreatic lipase
pepsin

pancreatic lipase

In the small intestine, which of the following enzymes breaks down maltose?
maltase
dextrinase
glucoamylase
sucrase
lactase

glucoamylase

The breakdown products of which of the following are absorbed into lacteals?

fats
proteins
carbohydrates

fats

Which major process involves the elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus?

defecation
ingestion
mechanical breakdown
absorption

defecation

How would you classify chewing food?

mechanical breakdown
propulsion
ingestion
digestion

mechanical breakdown

The major means of propelling food through the digestive tract is __________.

swallowing
churning
segmentation
peristalsis

peristalsis

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.

secretion
digestion
absorption
ingestion

digestion

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.

secretion
mechanical digestion
absorption
chemical digestion

chemical digestion

Peristaltic waves are ________.

-churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract
-waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
-pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract
-segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract

waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.

anabolism
mastication
catabolism
fermentation

catabolism

The __________ is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal body wall.

mesentery
omenta
parietal peritoneum
visceral peritoneum

parietal peritoneum

Which layer of the alimentary canal is constructed from either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium?

submucosa
mucosa
serosa
muscularis externa

mucosa

Which layer of the alimentary canal is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis?

muscularis externa
serosa
mucosa
submucosa

muscularis externa

Which layer of the alimentary canal contains the nerve supply of the enteric neurons that regulate digestive system activity?

submucosa
serosa
mucosa
muscularis externa

submucosa

T/F: The nervous system does not regulate digestive activity.

False

The innermost tissue layer of the alimentary canal is the __________.

muscularis
submucosa
serosa
mucosa

mucosa

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.

lamina propria
mucosal lining
mesenteries
serosal lining

mesenteries

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

-muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
-submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa
-mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
-serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.

adventitia
lamina propria
serosa
submucosa

lamina propria

The lamina propria is composed of ________.

dense regular connective tissue
loose connective tissue
dense irregular connective tissue
reticular connective tissue

loose connective tissue

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodules, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.

serosa
mucosa
muscularis externa
submucosa

submucosa

Which of the following is NOT a function of saliva?

-Saliva cleanses the mouth.
-Saliva contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of proteins.
-Saliva moistens food and helps compact it into a bolus.
-Saliva dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted.

saliva contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of proteins.

The __________ guards the entry of food into the stomach.

pyloric sphincter
cardiac sphincter
ileocecal valve
diaphragm

cardiac sphincter

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the stomach?

-The stomach mucosa is folded into rugae.
-The stomach has three layers of muscle in the muscularis tunic.
-The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.
-The stomach produces a double-layered coat of alkaline mucus.

the stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.

Which digestive process normally occurs only in the mouth?

segmentation
mechanical digestion
absorption
ingestion

ingestion

The mucosa collapses inward when the stomach is empty, forming large folds known as __________.

rugae
pylorus
cardia
fundus

rugae

In the __________ phase of gastric secretion, chyme is moved into the duodenum.

reflux
intestinal
gastric phase
cephalic

intestinal

The __________ is the last segment of the small intestine.

colon
ileum
jejunum
duodenum

ileum

Increase output of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions?

secretin

Increases output of enzymatic-rich pancreatic juice?

cholecystokinin

Increase HCl secretion and stimulates contraction of intestinal muscle?

gastrin

Stimulates insulin release and mildly inhibits HCl production?

gastric inhibitory peptide

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.

-is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place
-is the only place where fats are completely digested
-initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
-is the first site where absorption takes place

initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

Chyme is created in the ________.

small intestine
stomach
mouth
esophagus

stomach

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?

serous cells
chief cells
parietal cells
mucous neck cells

parietal cells

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.

chief cells of the stomach
parietal cells of the duodenum
Brunner's glands
goblet cells of the small intestine

chief cells of the stomach

Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.

pepsinogen
hydrochloric acid
rennin
mucin

hydrochloric acid

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

A
B12
C
K

B12

Chief cells ________.
produce pepsinogen
produce gastrin
produce HCl
produce mucin

produce pepsinogen

T/F: Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach.

True

Which cell in the small intestine's mucosa is a mucus-secreting cell?

Paneth cell
goblet cell
enteroendocrine cell
absorptive cell

goblet cell

Which cells of the small intestine secrete enterogastrones, such as secretin and cholecystokinin?

goblet cells
enteroendocrine cells
Paneth cells
absorptive cells

enteroendocrine cells

Which component of bile emulsifies fats?

stercobilin
bilirubin
bile salts
cholester

bile salts

Which vessel delivers nutrient-rich blood to the liver from the digestive tract?
hepatic portal vein
hepatic vein
inferior vena cava
central vein

hepatic portal vein

Which chemical activates the transformation of trypsinogen to trypsin?

carboxypeptidase
amylase
chymotrypsin
enteropeptidase

enteropeptidase

What is a major function of pancreatic juice?

-emulsifying fats by breaking them into smaller pieces
-acidifying the contents of the stomach
-acidifying the contents of the small intestine
-neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach

neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach

Bile is produced by the __________.

liver
stomach
gallbladder
pancreas

liver

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.

-return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low
-distribute hormones throughout the body
-collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage
-carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?

secretin
cholecystokinin
gastric inhibitor peptide
gastrin

cholecystokinin

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

-the rugae and haustra
-the vast array of digestive enzymes
-plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli
-Brunner's glands and Peyer Patches

plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.

bile canaliculus
portal vein
pancreatic acini
hepatopancreatic ampulla

hepatopancreatic ampulla

T/F: The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function.

True

Which of the following propels food residue over large areas of the colon three to four times a day?

haustral contractions
mass movement
Valsalva's maneuver
defecation reflex

mass movement

What is the function of the bacterial flora that inhabit the large intestine?

-Bacterial flora release a bicarbonate-rich juice to help neutralize chyme from the stomach.
-Bacterial flora synthesize B-complex vitamins and some of the vitamin K needed by the liver.
-Bacterial flora emulsify fats.
-Bacterial flora facilitate nutrient absorption.

bacterial flora synthesize B-complex vitamins and some of the vitamin K needed by the liver.

Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestine?

digestion
mechanical breakdown
nutrient absorption
defecation

defecation

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.

-does not contain villi
-is longer than the small intestine
-has pocket-like sacs called haustra
-exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli

is longer than the small intestine

Which of the following are mismatched?
amylase: carbohydrate digestion
protease: lipid digestion
nuclease: DNA and RNA digestion
lipase: fat digestion

protease: lipid digestion

Proteins are digested into __________.

amino acids
glycerol
monosaccharides
nucleotides

amino acids

Which enzymes are responsible for the final chemical breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids?

proteases
brush border enzymes
amylases
pancreatic enzymes

brush border enzymes

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?

gastrin
cholecystokinin
amylase
trypsin

amylase

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
rennin
lipase
pepsin
cholecystokinin

lipase

Which part of the digestive system is the major location for absorption of the end products of digestion?

small intestine
large intestine
stomach
liver

small intestine

Chemical and mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs into simpler units?

digestion

Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube?

perstalsis

Enyzmatic breakdown of any type of food molecule?

hydrolysis

Process by which simpler chemical units pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph?

absorption

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