Which of the following structures or organs is NOT part of the upper respiratory system?
B) nasal conchae
D) internal nares
What is the name of the respiratory tract passageway that leads directly into each lung?
Which of the following serves as a passageway for BOTH food or liquids and air?
What is the name for the nostrils?
A) nasal conchae
B) nasal vestibule
C) nasal septum
D) external nares
What is the name of the bony plate that separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity?
A) hard palate
B) nasal conchae
C) soft palate
D) internal nares
Which subdivision of the pharynx is the superior portion of the pharynx?
Which of the following is the largest laryngeal cartilage?
A) arytenoid cartilage
B) thyroid cartilage
C) cricoid cartilage
Which of the following forms a lid over the glottis?
A) thyroid cartilage
B) arytenoid cartilage
D) cricoid cartilage
Which of the following structures is commonly referred to as the Adam's apple?
A) cricothyroid ligament
B) laryngeal prominence
C) thyrohyoid ligament
D) corniculate cartilage
__________ has a greater partial pressure in the pulmonary capillaries than in the alveoli, so it diffuses into the __________.
A) CO2; pulmonary capillaries
B) O2; alveoli
C) O2; pulmonary cavities
D) CO2; alveoli
Which gas law explains why there is as much CO2 exchanged between the alveoli and blood as there is O2 exchanged, despite the fact that the partial pressure difference is so much smaller for CO2?
A) Henry's law
B) Boyle's law
C) Dalton's law
How would the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 change in an exercising muscle?
A) The partial pressure of O2 would increase, and the partial pressure of CO2 would decrease.
B) The partial pressure of O2 would decrease, and the partial pressure of CO2 would increase.
Which way would O2 and CO2 diffuse during internal respiration?
A) Both O2 and CO2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries.
B) O2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries, and CO2 would diffuse into the cells.
C) O2 would diffuse into the cells, and CO2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries.
Internal and external respiration depends on several factors. Which of the following is NOT an important factor in gas exchange?
A) partial pressure of the gases
B) rate of blood flow through the tissue
C) available surface area
D) the molecular weight of the gas
A) the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.
B) the diaphragm relaxes.
C) oxygen molecules move into the lungs, and carbon dioxide molecules move out of the lungs.
D) the diaphragm and rib muscles contract.
E) air moves up the trachea.
From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?
Which statement is correct?
A) In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.
B) Oxygen is released from the mitochondria as a product of cellular respiration.
C) Oxygen diffuses from large blood vessels into the body's cells.
D) As oxygen diffuses from the lungs into capillaries, blood becomes deoxygenated.
E) Carbon dioxide diffuses from the alveoli into surrounding capillaries.
After blood becomes oxygenated,
A) it does not return to the heart, but goes directly to the lungs.
B) it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to the lungs.
C) it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells.
D) it does not return to the heart, but goes to the nose and mouth.
E) it does not return to the heart, but goes directly to capillaries that supply the body's cells with oxygen.
A) has five subunits.
B) is found in blood plasma.
C) uses ATP to move oxygen from blood to body cells.
D) is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen.
E) is the site of cellular respiration.
When the diaphragm contracts, _______.
A) it rises in the thoracic cavity
B) it lifts the rib cage
C) it flattens out
D) it flattens out and it rises in the thoracic cavity
Which of the following is a passive process?
B) inspiration during exercise
C) expiration during exercise
What is the driving force for the movement of air into the lungs?
A) resistance generated in the blood vessels
B) the pumping of the heart
C) the pressure gradient
D) the diffusion of gases
Which of the following describes the volume of air exhaled during passive breathing?
A) tidal volume
B) tidal volume plus residual volume
C) expiratory reserve volume
D) tidal volume plus expiratory reserve volume
What is the difference between TLC and VC?
A) VC includes TV.
B) TLC includes RV.
C) TLC includes TV.
D) VC includes RV.
The minute ventilation is _______.
A) the amount of air left in the lungs after 1 minute
B) the amount of air forcefully inhaled in 1 minute
C) calculated by multiplying the rate of respiration times TV
D) the amount of air forcefully exhaled in 1 minute
Under normal conditions, the forced expiratory volume is normally _______.
A) 75 - 85% of the vital capacity
B) 75 - 85% of the total lung capacity
C) 50 - 60% of the total lung capacity
D) 50 - 60% of the vital capacity
When the radius of the airway was decreased, _______.
A) tidal volume increased
B) expiratory reserve volume decreased
C) vital capacity increased
D) residual volume decreased
E) residual volume decreased and expiratory reserve volume decreased
During forced exhalation, _______.
A) the diaphragm, the internal intercostals and the external intercostals contract
B) the diaphragm contracts
C) the internal intercostals contract
D) the external intercostals contract
Why is normal exhalation passive?
A) The diaphragm is involuntarily controlled.
B) Respiratory muscles are relaxing.
C) Respiratory muscles are relaxing and elastic tissue in the lungs recoils.
D) Elastic tissue in the lungs recoils.
With emphysema, the muscles that contract with normal exhalation include which of the following?
A) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles
B) abdominal muscles
C) external intercostals and abdominal muscles
D) external intercostals
E) internal intercostals
During an acute asthma attack, the obstruction is caused by _______.
A) bronchiole smooth muscle spasms
B) destruction of the walls of the alveoli
C) a spasm of the diaphragm
D) loss of elastic recoil
Which of the following would increase with exercise?
A) frequency of breathing
B) tidal volume and frequency of breathing
C) minute volume
D) tidal volume
E) tidal volume, frequency of breathing and minute volume
Which of the following is(are) obstructive conditions?
A) an acute asthma attack
B) emphysema and an acute asthma attack
D) emphysema, an acute asthma attack and exercise
Which of the following resulted in an increase in tidal volume above the normal value?
A) acute asthma attack plus inhaler
B) moderate exercise, acute asthma attack plus inhaler and emphysema
C) moderate exercise
A normal FEV1% was seen with _______.
A) emphysema, acute asthma attack and acute asthma attack plus inhaler
C) acute asthma attack plus inhaler
D) acute asthma attack
With an acute asthma attack, ________________ increased when compared to normal values.
Without surfactant, _______.
A) the surface tension of the liquid in the alveoli would be greater and the alveoli would collapse
B) the alveoli would collapse
C) the surface tension of the liquid in the alveoli would be greater
D) the surface tension of the liquid in the alveoli would be less and the alveoli would collapse
E) the surface tension of the liquid in the alveoli would be less
The pressure in the pleural cavity is called the _______.
A) transpulmonary pressure
B) intrapulmonary pressure
C) interpleural pressure
D) intrapleural pressure
The pressure in the pleural cavity is _______.
A) greater than the pressure in the alveoli
B) less than the pressure in the alveoli
C) less than atmospheric pressure
D) greater than the pressure in the alveoli and less than atmospheric pressure
E) less than the pressure in the alveoli and less than atmospheric pressure
In this activity, the pressure in the pleural cavity would be located _______.
A) below the diaphragm
B) in the valve
C) in the simulated lungs
D) between the bell jar and the outer wall of the lung
Which amount of surfactant resulted in the greatest amount of airflow?
D) Amounts 2 and 4 gave the same airflow.
How did the pressure in the left intrapleural cavity change when the valve was opened?
A) It went from a negative number to zero and the pressure in the intrapleural cavity equalized with the atmospheric pressure.
B) It went from a negative number to zero.
C) It went from a positive number to a negative number.
D) The pressure in the intrapleural cavity equalized with the atmospheric pressure.
E) It went from a positive number to a negative number and the pressure in the intrapleural cavity equalized with the atmospheric pressure.
How did the total air flow in this trial differ from that in the previous trial in which the pleural cavities were intact?
A) It did not change
B) It went to zero.
C) It was cut in half.
D) It doubled in value.