Whose dominant cognition theories have been used to structure education?
Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky
Carly is given grapes and strawberries. When asked if she has more grapes or fruit, she responds, "I have more fruits." Carly is using the logical concept of:
The logical principle that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change is called:
Piaget stressed the ______________, while Vygotsky stressed the _________________.
child's own discovery of concepts; importance of instruction by others
Vygotsky's emphasis on the importance of culture teaching children:
has been supported by research conducted throughout the world
Information-processing theory deals primarily with the ___________ of human thinking.
__________ memory stores incoming stimulus information for a short period after it is received and then allows it to be processed.
What contributes to a child's ability to increase speed of thinking?
a. playing video games
b. ongoing myelination of neural axons
c. participation in sports
d. All of the answers are correct (x)
The typical American 10-year-old can identify more characters from the Harry Potter novels than members of the U.S. Senate can. This illustrates:
how experience, current opportunity, and personal motivation affect the knowledge base
Which statement is true?
Metacognition increases academic abilities in math, reading, writing, and science
A child's ability to speak formally or informally depending on the audience and the context is called:
Learning a second language is:
easier if the first language is relatively close to it
The success of any educational program that teaches a majority language depends on:
how much reading, writing, speaking, and listening is done in the home
The arrangement in which non-native English-speaking children are placed together and given an intensive course in basic English so that they can be educated in the same classroom as native English speakers is called:
English as a second language
Of the following factors, which is related most directly to a child's language proficiency?
early exposure to language
Throughout the world, ______ percent of 7-year-olds are in school.
The United States:
spends $8,000 annually per child in public elementary school
A federal project measuring achievement in reading, mathematics, and other subjects is the:
National Assessment of Educational Progress.
A problem with the NAEP national standards is that:
a. some states disagree with the teaching of phonics reading.
b. some schools provide less instruction in subjects other than reading, writing, and arithmetic.
c. some states disagree about what children should know and how they should learn it.
d. All of the answers are correct. (x)
An obvious manifestation of the hidden curriculum is:
the school's physical condition
Though there is disagreement on what, when, and how to teach, research shows that:
parents, teachers, and political leaders believe that children are learning what they need
Which of the following is reported as a difference between the United States and Japanese educational systems?
nationwide regulation of education policies in Japan
The two distinct reading methods are the ________ approach and the _______ approach.
According to research, the best way to teach reading is using:
a. a systematic phonics approach in the early grades.
b. the whole-language approach with students older than 9 when reading is connected to literature, history, and science.
c. a variety of methods and strategies.
d. All of the answers are correct.
In your text, the true story of Tilly Smith warning her mother of the impending tsunami that hit a Thailand beach demonstrates that:
a. 10-year-olds are ready to learn and remember when knowledge is concrete and includes examples and active participation.
b. 10-year-olds are ready to learn and remember when taught using cognitive learning skills and the whole-language reading approach.
c. Tilly's teacher provided a good education.
d. All of the answers are correct.
The 2001 No Child Left Behind federal law was enacted because:
there was concern that American children were not learning enough.
When Piaget referred to concrete operations, he meant logic applied in situations that:
involve building structures from smaller objects
When a child understands that steam created from boiling water condenses back into water, the child has learned the logical principle of _________
Studies of Brazilian street children confirmed Vygotsky's perspective in that:
children with the best math skills had both formal schooling and street experience.
__________ memory retains an impression of a stimulus on a sensory organ.
Mechanisms that combine memory, processing speed, and knowledge to regulate the analysis and flow of information within the system are called:
Rob is taking a test. By answering the easy questions first so that he can devote most of his time to the more difficult questions, he is displaying:
What must occur in order for metacognition to develop in children?
Children must become better aware of what they know and what they need to learn.
During middle childhood, language advancement is best characterized by:
using practical language with a variety of audiences
In contrast to language during the play years, school-age children's language:
varies in tone, pronunciation, and sentence length
Total immersion refers to:
teaching a second language by having all instruction in that language
What is the factor that most affects whether parents, school, and culture encourage bilingualism in children?
socioeconomic status of the family and of the minority group
The strategy in which school subjects are taught in two languages is called:
A factor that impacts the level of a child's language skills is the:
teacher's and parents' expectations of the child's ability to learn language
A characteristic of American education, unlike that in Australia, is that:
the states have more control of what is taught and how it is taught
Among countries, a major difference in the education of children is:
whether the parents, state, or federal government decide the curriculum
The unrecognized rules and priorities that influence a child's learning in school are called the:
The international math and science assessment for fourth- and eighth-graders is called the:
Trends in Math and Science Study
The 2003 TIMSS assessment of fourth-graders' mathematics achievement found the lowest rankings for nations that:
had little history of universal fourth-grade education
A finding of international assessments is that:
gender differences in performance are not uniform among the nations
As a result of changes like the No Child Left Behind Act in the United States and yutori kyoiko in Japan:
each country's education system becomes closer to what the others had been
Children who learn the sound of each alphabet letter and combinations of letters to decipher simple words are learning to read by the _______ approach
The Math Wars are a:
disagreement between those who want more emphasis on teaching basic math skills and those who want emphasis on a broader, more conceptual understanding of the math
Historically, math instruction has ______________, while today many educators would like math instruction to _________________.
involved memorizing math facts, rules, and processes; be more social interactive in discovery
Despite the many controversies about educating school-age children, the real issues probably involve
differences in culture and values
Emma, who is in middle school, announces to her mother, "I am just as good in math as the smartest boy in my class." Emma is engaging in:
The practice of "no snitching" by middle-school children is an example of:
the culture of children
A difference between the behaviors of middle-school children and younger children is that:
middle-school children are able to engage in moral arguments.
Kohlberg would expect a child whose thought processes are egocentric to display moral reasoning:
with a punishment and obedience orientation.
According to research, the most popular young American children are _________, and by fifth grade, the most popular are __________.
kind and trustworthy; dominant and arrogant
According to a recent study, children from violent homes have:
fewer close friends and are lonelier
Characteristics of bullying are:
repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm a weaker person.
A review of research on successful ways to halt bullying found that:
the whole school must change, not just the identified bullies.
Results of a recent research study on bullying that involved all third- to sixth-graders in six schools found that:
the cultures of children and of schools resist change, making it difficult to stop bullying.
The latest research concludes that of all the environmental factors that influence the developing child:
children raised together may not share the same home environment, thus contributing to the nonshared environmental factors being more influential.
The significant finding of recent research on monozygotic twins' behaviors and their mothers' emotional attitudes is that:
parents can create a nonshared environment that influences a child's developing temperament.
School-age children thrive if the family:
nurtures peer relationships.
A nuclear family consists of:
a father, a mother, and their biological children under age 18 living in one household.
According to research, which of the following is true of family structure and function?
Structure is intertwined with function.
Any comparison of the advantages of one family structure over another depends partly on the specific parents involved and partly on:
the culture in which the family lives.
The fact that cohabiting French parents who share household and child-rearing tasks function better as a family and are less likely to separate than married American parents with equal responsibilities provides evidence that:
unmarried French parents have less stress than married U.S. parents do.
Research indicates that chronic poverty or sudden loss of income in families leads to:
anger and depression among adults, which makes them hostile toward their children.
A crucial factor necessary for school-age children to thrive is:
harmony and stability in the home
According to a recent study of childhood stress, a stressor is more likely to become overwhelming when:
the child experiences self-blame or personal threat.
Ten-year-old Julian's parents frequently yell and argue. He will more likely:
feel lonely if he blames himself for his parents' fights.
The crisis of industry versus inferiority is part of which theory?
A middle-school child's self-concept is greatly influenced by the:
social comparisons of peers.
A middle-school child's self-concept:
is no longer tied to the parents' perspective.
Which of the following is true of resilience?
is no longer tied to the parents' perspective.
Which of the following is true of resilience?
Resilience is dynamic.
can accumulate to make other stresses more harmful.
A key aspect of a child's resilience is the child's ability to:
develop friends, activities, and skills.
Psychosocially, one of the most important tasks of a middle-school child is to:
learn how to get along with peers.
The difference in the psychosocial development of young children as compared to middle-school children is that:
young children's egocentrism makes them less affected by another's acceptance or rejection.
The term "culture of children" means:
the particular habits and styles reflecting rules and rituals that are distinct from those of adult society.
Eleven-year-old Eric raised thousands of dollars for Katrina disaster victims. He believes that his efforts will help to improve some victims' living conditions. He is demonstrating:
The _______ level emphasizes rewards and punishments, while and the _______ level emphasizes moral principles.
Kohlberg's view of children's development of moral reasoning was criticized because he:
did not recognize the shift from adult to peer values.
Research on social acceptance among children indicates that:
some children are well-liked, others aren't, and those in both groups change over time.
Rita, who is unpopular among her peers, frequently ridicules and antagonizes other children. Her behavior suggests that she is a(n):
The ability to regulate one's emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination, is referred to as:
Boys who bully tend to:
use physical aggression.
Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus's program to reduce bullying included the interventions of:
teaching students to befriend lonely children
Which of the following statements concerning bullying is true?
a. Efforts to reduce bullying have rarely been successful.
b. Programs to reduce bullying that appear to be good might actually be harmful.
c. Intervention is less effective in the higher grades than in the younger grades.
d. All of the statements are true.
Research on temperaments of monozygotic twins supports the finding that:
a mother's emotional attitudes toward her twins are one factor that influences the twins' behaviors.
Family ____ refers to the legal and genetic relationships of related people living together, and family ____ refers to the way a family works to care for its members.
Which statement regarding family function and structure is true?
Family function is independent of family structure.
The family structure that is most rapidly increasing in the U.S. is the:
single father, divorced or never married
Research indicates that parents in nuclear families tend to:
have personal and financial strengths that make them better parents.
According to your text, families who are very wealthy raise children with high rates of emotional problems. This is thought to be, in part, because:
the children are spoiled.
According to research, children who experience many family transitions are more likely to:
Between ages 6 and 11, children show psychosocial maturation by their ability to:
tell time and have set times for activities
What is illustrated by the schoolchild's saying: "Nobody likes me. Everybody hates me. Think I'll go eat worms."?
concerns about inferiority
Children may experience lower academic achievement if they:
have unrealistically high self-esteem.
A Hawaiian longitudinal study found that the resilience of poverty-stricken children whose parents were mentally unstable was most dependent on:
a realistic goal orientation, persistence, and learned creativity.
Which of the following is an example of a "self-righting" potential?
A child's use of religion
If children do not receive emotional support for a problem from parents, they:
a. naturally try to deal with the problem.
b. may turn to their friends or unrelated adults.
c. may pray, especially when they are sad or angry.
d. All of the above answers are correct.
A century ago:
adolescence began later
The current average age of menarche among well-nourished girls is:
12 years, 8 months.
An organic chemical substance produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another body tissue is called a:
Puberty begins with a hormonal signal from the __________ to the _________.
hypothalamus; pituitary glands
Which hormone causes the gonads to increase their production of sex hormones?
and androgens are produced by the adrenal glands of both sexes.
Testosterone stimulates the rapid arousal of emotions, especially:
The major influence on the age of onset of menarche is:
Environmental stress has been found to:
result in earlier puberty.
are more likely to join peer groups that rebel against laws and traditions.
The last part(s) of the body to be fully formed is (are) the:
Which of the following is among the body changes in adolescence that increase physical endurance?
The sitting heartbeat slows.
Why are adolescents less susceptible to respiratory ailments?
The lymphoid system decreases in size.
What has the greatest influence on who a person's first sexual partner is?
Which maturation sequence is especially problematic for adolescents?
The limbic system matures before the prefrontal cortex does.
Adolescent brain development:
progresses from back to front.
Teenagers are likely to experience sleep deprivation as a consequence of their:
phase-delayed sleep-wake patterns.
Aborted teen pregnancies are more likely to result in complications because:
the younger a woman is, the later in pregnancy she is likely to abort.
Which of the following sexually transmitted infections is a sexually active teenager most likely to have?
What is the most frequently reported disease?
At what age is being a victim of sex abuse least likely?
hich of the following statements about national differences in adolescent drug use is true?
The countries with the least-restrictive drug laws have highest levels of teen drug use.
In the United States, what group uses the most drugs?
European American teens
"Addiction" refers to:
needing a drug to feel normal.
Which of the following attempts to decrease teen drug use appears to have been most effective?
anti-smoking ad campaigns in Florida and California
Adolescence and infancy are different in that:
adolescents are aware of the changes they are going through.
The first visible sign of puberty in girls is:
the onset of breast growth.
The sequence of pubescence for girls begins with _________, whereas for boys it begins with ________.
secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics
Which of the following is another name for the sex glands?
The route that many hormones follow to trigger the changes of puberty is called:
the HPA axis.
The median age of menarche is lowest for:
African American girls.
The secular trend:
seems to have stopped in developed nations.
In what way does stress affect puberty?
Stress increases the hormones that start puberty.
Fewer than half of all teenage girls consume the recommended amount of:
The pubertal growth spurt:
proceeds from the extremities to the core.
Jason is going through a growth spurt. The first observable evidence will likely be that:
his fingers and toes lengthen.
During adolescence, the lungs will ____ in weight and the heart will _____ in size.
Like the muscle strength of typical adolescents, Joel's muscle strength will:
Which of the following best explains why sports injuries are common in adolescence?
Both height and weight increase before the muscles have grown enough.
Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic?
maturation of the testes
Which of the following is a secondary sex characteristic?
females take on more fat
Hormones are to age and experience as ________ is to ______________.
limbic system; cortex
The maturing limbic system is particularly attuned to:
strong immediate sensations.
is about half as common in the United States as it was 20 years ago.
Which STI is a sexually active teenager least likely to have?
Child sexual abuse:
is most common just after puberty.
According to the Monitoring the Future study:
high school seniors are more likely to report having used "other illicit drugs" than amphetamine.
The 2006 Monitoring the Future study reported that:
25% of high school seniors were binge drinkers.
"Generational forgetting" refers to:
each new generation forgetting what prior generations have learned about drugs.
Which is TRUE of project DARE?
It has been found to have no impact on adolescent drug use.
When seeking to understand any single adolescent, the text cautions that one must keep ________ in mind.
Adolescent egocentrism make it difficult to:
imagine another person's perspective.
At which of the following ages would you expect acute self-consciousness to be at its highest?
The invincibility fable and the imaginary audience are both related to:
Which of the following causes teens to believe that they are constantly being judged by others?
the imaginary audience
Of the following, which is the best example of a false conclusion caused by the imaginary audience?
Janise is having a bad hair day and refuses to go to school.
is not necessarily irrational.
Although concrete operational thinkers might succeed on the balance-scale test of formal reasoning, they are less likely to do so because of their reliance on:
trial and error.
The individual who engages in hypothetical thought clearly demonstrates an understanding of the word:
________________ is sometimes called "top-down thinking".
Eleventh-grader Omar can easily use deductive reasoning while:
considering the ethics of euthanasia.
Which theory proposes that advances in thinking reflect biological changes?
Piaget's findings that an adolescent's reasoning power suddenly advanced soon after puberty:
have been found to be partially true; the changes are not as sudden as he believed.
What type of thought involves the rational analysis of many factors whose interactions must be calculated?
"Throwing good money after bad" is a phrase often used when we put more and more money into something that really was not worth it in the first place. Which of the following best explains why we often do not choose to "cut our losses"?
sunk cost fallacy
"Secondary education" refers to:
grades 7 through 12.
Maria is in middle school and lashes out aggressively when she does not get her way. The other girls:
Today's "digital divide":
separates young from old.
What can schools do to facilitate adolescent learning?
take steps to minimize stress
In contrast to the effects of diversity in middle school, diversity in high school appears to have a(n) _________ effect.
According to a 2003 study, which country's 15-year-olds have the highest problem-solving scores?
Which of the following factors has been shown to have a significant effect on problem-solving scores in the United States?
High schools today:
require most students to take two years of math beyond algebra.
In which of the following countries are 100% of those aged 11 to 18 enrolled in school?
How many high school students in the United States attend schools with enrollments of more than 1,000 students?
Which characteristic of adolescent thought is demonstrated when a teen fails to recognize that others may neither care about nor share her opinions?
In contrast to the egocentrism seen in early childhood, the egocentric adolescent is more likely to:
have an inaccurate understanding of what others may think.
When Ramon has had several beers and insists on driving his friends home, he is most likely displaying:
the invincibility fable.
Which characteristic of adolescent cognition best explains why those under 20 are more likely to volunteer for military service and have a desire to be sent into combat?
the invincibility fable
Julie is obsessed with how others will react to her behavior and appearance. It takes her several hours to dress in the morning as she considers what both her friends and her enemies will think of her. Julie's behavior reflects the power of:
the imaginary audience.
Recent research on adolescent egocentrism suggests that:
many adolescents do not feel invincible.
Formal operational thought allows the adolescent to be able to:
multiply unreal numbers.
Which of the following statements about hypothetical-deductive thought is true?
Hypothetical-deductive thought allows one to consider propositions that may or may not reflect reality.
may complicate reflection about serious issues.
After explaining operant conditioning, Dr. Snark asked students to identify examples of operant conditioning and to design a study that used the principles of this form of learning. In order to accomplish these tasks, her students would use:
Which theory proposes that changes from the thinking of a child and to the thinking of an adolescent occur gradually?
The "dual-process model" of adolescent thought means that:
intuitive thinking and advanced reasoning are counterbalanced.
Intuitive thought is also referred to as:
High levels of emotion:
slow down rational thinking.
Teenagers' logic tends to improve with:
When it comes to religion:
most adolescents feel close to God.
According to a study by Smith (2005), what percentage of adolescents report that they are not religious?
The "low ebb" of learning refers to:
the first year of middle school.
The findings of a study of middle-school students in Los Angeles suggest that __________ makes students feel safer and less lonely.
having someone to blame
The first year of a new school often correlates with:
increased bullying and decreased achievement.
Which of the following factors has been shown to have a significant effect on problem-solving scores in Iceland?
In high-stakes testing situations, students are typically given:
a single test to determine success or failure
High-stakes testing as a requirement for high school graduation has resulted in:
fewer students graduating.
According to teachers in Australia, students in which grades are most likely to pose a problem because they "do nothing"?
grades 11 and 12
Which of the following has been found to increase school violence?
installing metal detectors
A consistent definition of one's self as a unique person who has certain roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations is called:
Which of the following factors is most likely to influence an adolescent?
Understanding oneself based on past experiences and future plans is called ________, and lack of commitment to any goals or values is called __________.
identity achievement; identity diffusion
In achieving full identity, an adolescent should understand his or her goals and values regarding:
a. religion and sex.
b. politics and ethnicity.
d. All of the answers are correct.
______ refers to a person's self-definition as male or female and _______ refers to a person's erotic desires.
Gender identity; sexual orientation
Adolescents establish an ethnic identity:
a. at about age 15.
b. to connect with their ethnic group history.
c. to blend their parents' perspective and their own experiences.
d. All of the answers are correct.
Research suggests that:
working 20 or more hours while attending high school impedes identity formation.
Teens are less likely to abuse drugs, leave school, and take unnecessary risks when:
they feel valued by their communities.
Tom and his mother constantly argue about Tom's not wearing a clean shirt every day. They are:
Which statement is correct concerning parent-adolescent relationships?
Family conflict varies among cultures and family customs in every nation.
Mr. Sanchez gives the car keys to his son and asks, "Who are you going with to the movies and what time will you be home?" This questioning is an example of:
Adolescents who group themselves:
help bridge the gap between childhood and adulthood.
Teens who select as their most admired peers those who are doing drugs, are:
demonstrating a strong independence.
A factor that pushes immigrant teens toward extremes of either obedience or rebellion is:
a wide discrepancy between the family maintaining traditional practices and the teens' hostile environment.
Friends are especially important to immigrant youth because:
they help the immigrant teen to defend against attacks and avoid physical fights.
High school romances:
rarely last more than a year.
Teenagers who take a "virginity pledge" with their church friends:
are more likely to marry and have children after high school graduation.
Parents are more likely to discuss sex with their child when:
the child is a girl.
As reported in 2005, the current sexual behavior of American teens is that:
half of all teens had sexual intercourse by age 16, which is later than a decade ago.
The rate of teen pregnancy is highest in:
the United States.
Depression among adolescents is:
more common in females than in males.
Which of the following statements is true concerning adolescent suicide?
Suicidal ideation is common among adolescents, but completed suicides are not.
Which is one of the four most influential factors that may lead to thoughts of suicide?
access to alcohol and drugs
Most longitudinal studies on adolescent destructiveness conclude that:
increased anger at puberty is normal and expressed in acceptable ways.
A characteristic of adolescence-limited offenders is that:
they tend to break the law with their friends.
During adolescence, psychosocial development is primarily a search to answer the question:
"Who am I?"
Almost always, adolescents seek an identity that is:
honest and self-assured.
Erikson's term for an adolescent who sleeps too much, cares little about school, and is indifferent to parental criticism is:
When 16-year-old Vu agreed with his parents that his career would be to continue the family business, he was exhibiting:
Lety enjoys attending the youth activities at both her parents' church and her friend's church. She doesn't seem to have a clear understanding of her religious faith. She is demonstrating:
diffusion in her religious identity.
Which type of identity does society expect teenagers to postpone making a commitment to?
Today, vocational identity is postponed because:
many vocations require specialized skills that take years to attain.
A key developmental asset that predicts positive youth outcomes is having:
supportive non-parent adult relationships.
Parent and adolescent conflicts:
occur when a child's drive for independence clashes with the parents' supervision and control.
Adolescents are said to have closeness with family when:
there is open communication, support, emotional connectedness, and parental control.
Concerning parental control, it is best to:
provide effective parenting before the teen years
A clique is a:
group of close friends who are loyal to one another and who exclude outsiders.
Applied to adolescent peer relationships, "facilitation" refers to the way that peers:
encourage each other to do things that none would do on his or her own.
Which immigrant youth seem to experience more discrimination from other adolescents and to suffer from lower self-esteem than other immigrant groups do?
In describing the sequence of male-female relationships, Dunphy found the _______ phase of adolescent heterosexual association to immediately precede the final pairing of couples.
small mixed-sex groups
Today, among adolescents, identifying one's sexual orientation:
may be less important and thus less acknowledged by today's youth.
Children who honestly discuss sex with their parents:
avoid pressure to have sex.
The best sex-education programs are those that:
start before high school, require parent-child communication, focus on behavior, and last for years.
Which statement regarding teen pregnancy is true?
Rates of teen pregnancy are lower in European countries than in the United States.
Research has shown that loss of confidence during adolescence:
is experienced by both sexes.
Two causes and signs of depression in adolescence are:
genetic vulnerability and a depressed mother when the adolescent was an infant.
A cognitive explanation for girls having higher rates of depression than boys is that:
girls tend to ruminate more than boys do.
Many people think that adolescent suicide is common because:
the adolescent suicide rate is higher than it was 40 years ago.
One reason why adolescent suicides have decreased since 1990 may be that:
there is more effective use of antidepressants.
Early neurological impairments increase the risk of a child becoming a(n) _________, and a teen experiencing a negative psychosocial development is at greater risk of becoming a(n) ___________.
life-course-persistent offender; adolescent-limited offender