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da capo form

Ternary (ABA) form in an aria, so called because the performers, when reaching the end of B, "take it from the head" and repeat A

cadenza

a showy passage for the soloist appearing near the end of the movement in a concerto; it usually incorporates rapid runs, arpeggios, and snippets of previously heard themes into a fantasy-like improvisation

chorale

the German word for the hymn of the Lutheran church; hence a simple religious melody to be sung by the congregation

church cantata

a multi-movement sacred work including arias, ariosos, and recitatives performed by vocal soloists, and chorus, and a small accompanying orchestra; became the musical core of the Sunday service of the Lutheran church

episode

a passage of free, non-imitative counterpoint found in a fugue

exposition

in a fugue, the opening section, in which each voice in turn has the opportunity to present the subject

fugue

a composition for three, four, or five parts played or sung by voices or instruments, which begins with a presentation of a subject in imitation in each part and continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint and further appearances of the subject

pedal point

a note, usually in the bass, sustained or continually repeated for a period of time while the harmonies change around it [Bach, Fugue in G minor, CD 1/19 1:37-1:47]

prelude

an introductory, improvisatory-like movement that gives the performer a chance to warm up and sets the stage for a more substantive subsequent movement

subject

a term for the principal theme in a fugue

(Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor) The first three notes of the initial statement of the subject are all drawn from the tonic triad: G. B-flat, and D. This statement begins on G. What is he order of the second and third notes?

D, then B-Flat

(Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor) Each of the four statements of the subject in the exposition begins on either the tonic or the dominant. Which does the fourth statement begin on?

Dominant

(Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor) What helps to distinguish among the 4 statements of the subject in the exposition?

The starting pitch and register, time, tone color, expectation that all 4 voices will state the subject in the exposition

(Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor)
In this recording, what contributes to a sense of finality at the end of the piece?

The dominant-to-tonic chord progression, the major mode of the last chord

(Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major)
How present is the Harpsichord?

present throughout the movement, without a break

(Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major)
What most accurately describes the general pitch counter of the opening phrase of the ritornello?

ascends, descends, ascends again

(Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major)
After the first statement of the complete ritornello, what concerto instruments enter first?

solo flute

(Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major)
Considering the rhythm aspect of the music, what is true of the beginning of this first concerto passage, in comparison to the ritornello?

the tempo is the same and the flute and violin play longer notes

Late Baroque music is usually characterized by _______

greater length and contrapuntal

The most noteworthy compositions of Bach and Handel are large-scale works full of

dramatic power, broad gestures, and often complex counterpoint.

The late Baroque is not a period of musical innovation, but one of

refinement.

Melody is governed by the principle of ____________; an initial theme is continually expanded.

progressive development

Melodies are typically _____ and __________, and often notes are propelled by ________________.

long, asymmetrical, melodic sequence

____ and _______ are more easily recognized in late Baroque music than in the music of any other period

Beat and meter

A composition typically begins with _______________, and it—or a complementary one—continues uninterrupted to the very end of the movement.

one prominent rhythmic idea,

The music of ____ and ______ is usually denser in texture, and more rigorously contrapuntal, than that of the early Baroque era.

Bach and Handel

The theme in a fugue is called the

subject.

At the outset each voice presents the subject in turn, and this successive presentation is called the _______________.

exposition of the fugue.

In a fugue, passages of exact imitation are interrupted by sections of_______________________.

free writing in which the voices more or less go their own way.

These freer sections, where the subject is not heard in its entirety, are called ________.

episodes.

A fugue is a composition for ____ or more parts (usually not more than five) played or sung by ____________, which begins with a presentation of a subject in____________________, continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint (episodes) and further appearances of the subject, and ends with a strong affirmation of the _______.

two, voices or instruments, imitation in each part (exposition), tonic key.

Bach and his contemporaries created the _________.

church cantata

Bach wrote almost ________ cantatas.

300

The church cantata became the musical core of the ______________.

Sunday service of the Lutheran Church.

The church cantata was sung after the reading of the _____, and provided a commentary on the Gospel text, allowing the congregation to meditate on the word of the Lord.

Gospel

What was followed by an hour long sermon?

church cantata

The chorale is a spiritual melody or religious folksong of the Lutheran Church—what other denominations would simply call a _______

hymn.`

Chorales are easy to sing because they have

clear-cut phrases and a steady beat with one syllable of text per note.

____ and _____ make up an opera

recitative and aria

the concerto grosso is a

3 movement work involving musical dialog between a chamber orchestra (tutti) and a small group of soloists (concerto). It usually consists of 2-3 violins and a continuo.

movement

a large, independent section of a major instrumental work, such as sonata, dance suite, symphony, quartet, or concerto

tutti

full orchestra, or full performing force
italien for All

concertino

a series of notes arranged in order to form a distinctive, recognizable musical unit; it is most often placed in the treble.

continuo

the group of instruments that function as soloists in a concerto grosso

solo concerto

a concerto in which an orchestra and a single performer in turn present and develop the musical material in the spirit of harmonious composition

theme

musical form in which a theme continually returns but is varied by the changing notes of the melody, the harmony, the rhythm, or some other feature of the music.

ritornello

a musical form in which all or part of the main theme is played repeatedly by the tutti, with each statement separated by virtuosic solo section played by the concertino

baroque

1600-1750, elaborate ornamentation, bold use of color, contrast and energetic activity

virtuosic

extraordinary technical facility possessed by an instrumental performer or singer

melody

a series of notes arranged in order to form a distinctive recognizable musical unit, usually in treble

the main identifying element of the fugue is

theme, or subject, that is imitated in various voices in a somewhat systematic function.

program music

seeks to recreate historical sounds or nature sounds

opera seria

a genre of opera that dominated the stage during the Baroque era, making use of serious historical or mythological subjects, da capo arias, and a lengthy overture

dance suite

a collection of instrumental dances, each with its own distinctive rhythm and character

oratorio

a large-scale genre of sacred music involving an overture, arias, recitatives, and choruses, but sung, whether in a theater or a church, without costumes or scenery

pastoral aria

Aria with several distinctive characteristics, all of which suggest the movement of simple shepherds attending the Christ Child: it glides along mainly in stepwise motion; it projects a lilting rhythm in which a slow moving beat is subdivided into three easily flowing eighth notes; and it grounds itself upon a harmony that changes slowly (in imitation of shepherds' bagpipes)

London in the early eighteenth century was the largest city in Europe and offered impressive opportunity for _______.

financial gain.

The _______ is a collection of stylized, abstract dances, usually from four to seven movements, all in one key and for one group of instruments

dance suite

Composers attempted to make each dance recognizable to audiences by ____________.

incorporating its rhythmic character, melodic style, and texture.

Typical dances in the late Baroque suite include _______, ________, and the __________

allemande, saraband, minuet

allemande

a stately duple meter German dance

the saraband

a slow sensual dance of Spanish origin in triple meter

minuet

a moderate, elegant dance in triple meter

Like the movements of a chamber sonata by Corelli, almost all the dances were in __________.

binary form (AB)

Often a binary dance is followed by a second, complementary dance, (e.g., having a trio (CD) follow a minuet). In such a case, the first dance is repeated after the second is performed, creating a ________.

large-scale ternary movement (ABCDAB).

The _______ of opera seria are usually derived from historical events or mythology

librettos

Much of the action is reported in the form of recitatives and the principal characters react to these events by means of________.

arias that express stock emotions.

_________ first appeared in seventeenth-century Italy as an extended musical setting of a sacred text for spiritual edification.

Oratorios

By Handel's day, oratorios, in effect, an opera with a ___________. Unlike opera, it makes no use of acting, staging, or costumes.

religious subject

Because the subject matter is sacred, there is more of an opportunity for moralizing, a dramatic function best performed by a _________.

chorus.

the chorus in ancient Greek drama, as the ____________ commenting on the action that has transpired.

voice of the people

The da capo aria, which originated in Italian opera, has two musical sections______. After the singer reaches the end of part B, he or she repeats A (creating an _____ form), but embellishing the repeat with __________.

A and B, ABA, virtuosic ornamentation

opera buffa

(Italian for "comic opera") an opera on a light, often domestic subject, with tuneful melodies, comic situations, and a happy ending

pianoforte

the original name of the piano

Alberti bass

instead of having the pitches of a chord sound all together, the notes are played in succession to provide a continual stream of sound

comic opera

a genre of opera that originated in the eighteenth century, portraying everyday characters and situations, and using spoken dialogue and simple songs

Enlightenment

also called the "Age of Reason," it was a period in philosophy that gave free rein to the pursuit of truth and the discovery of natural laws

We use the term "classical" in two ways:

to signify "serious" or "art" music as opposed to popular or folk music, and to identify music from a specific period of time.

We use "classic" in the first sense to signify something of _______

timeless beauty.

"Classical" as a style period _______ refers to a time which sought to reinstitute the aesthetic values of the ancient Greeks and Romans by incorporating ___________.

(1750-1820) balance and harmonious proportions.

When expressed in music, this "classical" tendency appeared as _______.

balanced phrases, clear textures, and easily audible musical forms.

Other periods have been inspired by classical antiquity—___________.

the Renaissance especially, but also the Baroque, and twentieth century—but not as much as during the eighteenth century.

Music from the classical period is often referred to as the "Viennese Classical style"

"Viennese Classical style"

why was the classical era referred to as "Viennese Classical Style"

Vienna was the most active center of music in central Europe and the three principal composers of the era—Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven—all resided there.

The Classical era in music coincides with the __________, which is also known as the "Age of Reason."

Enlightenment

This philosophical movement gave free rein to the

pursuit of truth and the discovery of natural laws. It was the age of such milestones as the discovery of electricity, the invention of the steam engine, and the publication of the first encyclopedias.

In France, ____________ espoused the principles of social justice, equality, religious tolerance, and freedom of speech.

Voltaire and Rousseau

These Enlightenment ideals subsequently became fundamental to democratic governments, and were enshrined in our ________.

American constitution.

Voltaire and other Enlightenment philosophers championed middle-class virtues, such as ________.

honesty, common sense, and hard work.

Eventually this middle class rebelled against the monarchy:

the Age of Reason gave way to the Age of Revolution.

The comic opera (known as opera buffa in Italy) proved to be a powerful vehicle for ________.

social reform.

comic opera made use of everyday characters and situations as well as _________.

spoken dialogue and simple songs

The ______ either poked fun at the aristocracy or criticized its heartlessness.

librettos

The institution of public concerts dates from this period.

classical

Tickets for the "Concert spirituel" in Paris or the concerts in London's Vauxhall Gardens could be purchased by any citizen who _____________.This fostered a leveling between social classes with respect to the fine arts.

could pay the fee and was properly dressed.

The middle class also desired to make music in their homes, and this activity centered on a new instrument, the _______, so called because unlike the harpsichord it could play at more than one dynamic level. Within a few years the harpsichord was as out-of-date as the vinyl record.

pianoforte

Compared with the relentless, often grandiose sound of the Baroque, Classical music is lighter in _____________.

tone and less pretentious or predictable.

_________ often have a tuneful, singable style, with short, simple phrases that are organized in antecedent—consequent pairs.

Classical melodies

The melody usually progresses by pairing these phrases in __________.

symmetrical groups

Melody was supported by a simple, homophonic harmony that moved with a flexible harmonic rhythm—__________.

the rate at which chords change

Composers sometimes enlivened a static harmony by playing the notes of the chord one at a time rather than all together, a style known as ______.

Alberti bass.

Instead of the driving, perpetual motion of Baroque rhythm, Classical music is irregular: __________.

rapid motion may be followed by repose and then further quick movement.

Texture in the Classical era was dominantly homophonic, with short passages of _________.

polyphony reserved for contrast.

What is perhaps most revolutionary about Classical period music is its ___________. The melodic style and texture can change within a few short bars, and composers began to call for crescendos and diminuendos. This all created a new sense of urgency and drama.

capacity for rapid change and endless fluctuation.

sonata allegro form

a dramatic musical form of the classical and romantic periods involving an exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda

double exposition form

a form, originating in the concerto of the classical period, in which the first orchestra and then the soloist present the primary thematic material.

tonic key

the central pitch around which the melody and the harmony gravitate; a chord built on the first degree of the scale; it is the most stable chord, and the one toward which the other chords move.

modulation

the process in music whereby the tonal center changes from one key to another, from G major to C major, for example.

dominant

the key built on the 5th degree of the scale

Esterházy family

a rich, influential, and aristocratic family in Hungary that had a passionate interest in music

Freemasons

a fraternity that believed in the Enlightenment ideals of tolerance and universal brotherhood

London Symphonies

a set of twelve compositions Haydn wrote during the latter part of his career

Salzburg

birthplace of Mozart

coda

(Italian for "tail") a final and concluding section of a musical composition

development

the center-most portion of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is developed and extended, transformed, or reduced to its essence; it is often the most confrontational and unstable section of the movement

exposition

in a fugue, the opening section, in which each voice in turn has the opportunity to present the subject; in sonata-allegro form, the principal section, in which all thematic material is presented

fugato

a short fugue set in some other musical form like sonata-allegro or theme and variations [Beethoven Sym. 5, third mvt., CD 3/10 1:47-2:02]

minuet

a moderate dance in triple meter, though actually danced in patterns of six steps, with no upbeat but with highly symmetrical phrasing

recapitulation

in sonata-allegro form, the return to the first theme and the tonic key following the development

relative major

the major key in a pair of major and minor keys; relative keys have the same key signature, for example E-flat major and C minor (both with three flats)

retransition

the end of the development section where the tonality often becomes stabilized on the dominant in preparation for the return of the tonic (and first theme) at the beginning of the recapitulation

serenade

an instrumental work for a small ensemble originally intended as a light entertainment in the evening

sonata-allegro form

a dramatic musical form of the Classical and Romantic periods involving an exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda

ternary form

a three-part musical form in which the third section is a repeat of the first, hence ABA

transition (bridge)

in sonata-allegro form the unstable section in which the tonality changes from tonic to dominant (or relative major) in preparation for the appearance of the second theme

trio

an ensemble, vocal or instrumental, with three performers; also, a brief, self-contained composition contrasting with a previous piece, such as a minuet or a polonaise; originally the trio was performed by only three instruments

canon (of Western music)

Standard repertoire

finale

the last movement in a multi-movement composition, one that usually works to a climax and conclusion

Köchel (K) number

Köchel (K) number

the numbering system that arranges Mozart's compositions in approximate chronological order

rondo

an ancient musical form (surviving into the twentieth century) in which a refrain alternates with contrasting material

theme and variations

a musical form in which a theme continually returns but is varied by changing the notes of the melody, the harmony, the rhythm, or some other feature of the music

sinfonia

a one-movement orchestral work in three sections (fast-slow-that originated in Italy as an overture to seventeenth century operas

cadenza

a showy passage for the soloist appearing near the end of the movement in a concerto; it incorporates rapid runs, arpeggios, and snippets of previously heard themes into a fantasy-like improvisation

double exposition form

a form, originating in the concerto of the Classical period, in which first the orchestra and then the soloist present the primary thematic material

genre

Type or class of music

scherzo

a rapid, jovial work in triple meter often used in place of the minuet as the third movement in a string quartet or symphony

solo concerto

a concerto in which an orchestra and a single performer in turn present and develop the musical material in the spirit of harmonious competition

string quartet

a standard instrumental ensemble for chamber music consisting of a first and second violin, a viola, and cello; also a genre of music, usually in three of four movements, composed for this ensemble

symphony

a genre of instrumental music for orchestra consisting of several movements; also the orchestral ensemble that plays this genre

While there were many other fine musicians in Europe during is period, the best compositions of ________________ reached a level all their own.

Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven

_________, the fourth largest city in Europe, was the capital of the old Holy Roman Empire and the home of an aristocratic society that offered patronage to musicians.

Vienna

A small number of forms—__________—regulated nearly all art music during the Classical period.

ternary, sonata-allegro, rondo, and theme and variations.

Of these forms only sonata-allegro from actually came into being during this era.

Sonata-allegro form dominated musical structure during the time of _______, and remained a potent force in the works of most composers of the Romantic era, as well as in the creations of some twentieth-century musicians.

Mozart and Haydn

Classical composers favored ternary form (ABA) for its _________.

simplicity and directness

In most ternary forms the B section contrasts the _________ from the surrounding units of A.

melody, key, and/or mood

In the Classical period, the most common use of ternary form is the ______

minuet and trio

The minuet is not a form, but rather a genre of dance featuring a moderate tempo and constant triple meter.

genre of dance featuring a moderate tempo and constant triple meter.

Originally______instruments played a second minuet, and so it was called the trio; the name persisted into the nineteenth century no matter how many instrumental lines were required.

3

The serenade is a lighthearted, multi-movement composition intended for public entertainment and often performed outdoors by a string ensemble or small orchestra. Mozart's A Little Night Music is an example of this genre.

...

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