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Understanding Nutrition 12th edition.

A

Which of the following is not a characteristic of caffeine use in physical activity?
Answer

It slows depletion of muscle glycogen

It often induces stomach upset and diarrhea

It acts as a physiological and psychological stimulant

It is permitted in moderation by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)

C

The optimal carbohydrate concentration of sports drinks for the endurance athlete is
Answer

1-2%.

5%.

6-8%.

15-20%.

C

The components of fitness include all of the following except
Answer

strength.

flexibility.

bone fragility.

cardiovascular endurance.

A

A person engaging in exercise at a moderate level should walk at a speed of one mile per
Answer

quarter hour.

half hour.

hour.

hour and a half.

C

Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?
Answer

High-fat diet

High-protein diet

High-carbohydrate diet

Normal mixed diet with vitamin supplements

A

Mary is 15 years old and has just joined her high school swim team. After the first three months of training and competing, her coach sends the team for mandatory physical examinations and routine blood tests. When Mary got home, she told her mom that she has sports anemia. Why shouldn't Mary begin taking iron supplements as a way to treat this condition?
Answer

The anemia is not correctible by extra iron intake

The anemia is most likely the result of folate deficiency

The iron will interfere with creatine phosphate synthesis

The iron will not be absorbed well because of the intense work-outs

B

What percentage of U.S. adults lives a completely sedentary lifestyle?
Answer

5

20

45

60

B

Why should fiber-rich foods be avoided in an athlete's pregame meal?
Answer

The fiber delays absorption of fat

The fiber interferes with glycolysis

The meal crowds out more energy-dense foods

The fiber retains water in the GI tract that would otherwise be absorbed

A

In the endurance athlete, the first priority of nutrient repletion should be
Answer

fluids.

protein.

glycogen.

electrolytes.

C

Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by
Answer

tripling protein intake.

taking hormones duplicating those of puberty.

putting a demand on muscles repeatedly by making them work harder.

relying on protein for muscle fuel and decreasing intake of carbohydrates.

D

In training to run in your state marathon this summer, you want to determine how much fluid to drink during training sessions. Your weight at the beginning of every training session is 150 pounds. At the end of every training session you weigh 146 pounds. How many cups of fluid are necessary replenish these losses?
Answer

2

4

6

8

A

Which of the following describes an effect of caffeine use in the athlete?
Answer

It stimulates fatty acid release

It enhances performance for almost all athletes

It raises blood pH to counteract the buildup of lactate

It promotes absorption of electrolytes from the intestinal tract

D

Which of the following are features of physical activity and exercise?
Answer

Neither involves mandatory body movement

Neither involves enhanced energy expenditure

Physical activity, but not exercise, involves muscle contractions

Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned

C

All of the following are acceptable definitions of the term fitness except
Answer

the ability of the body to resist stress.

the ability of the body to perform physical activity without undue stress.

the ability to maintain a normal body composition and remain free of injury while performing strenuous physical tasks.

the ability to meet normal physical and emotional demands while maintaining an energy reserve sufficient to overcome an immediate challenge.

B

Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition in athletes?
Answer

Iron in sweat represents the major route of iron loss from the body

Iron losses occur from accelerated destruction of fragile, older blood cells

Iron deficiency affects a higher percentage of male athletes than female athletes

Sports anemia is successfully treated by increasing dietary iron to levels 2-3 times the RDA

C

Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?
Answer

High-fat diet

High-protein diet

High-carbohydrate diet

Normal mixed diet with vitamin supplements

B

Which of the following is a feature of physical activity recommendations?
Answer

The minimum daily amount of exercise for health's sake is 10 minutes

The same level of effectiveness can be achieved by dividing the activity in shorter sessions throughout the day

To maintain a healthy body weight, a minimum of 75 minutes per day of vigorous (intensive) exercise is necessary

Walking each day as the only physical activity is not enough to meet the guidelines for quantity and quality of physical activity

C

Chris has been competing all day in a track competition and is now ready for the 100-meter dash. Although he feels tired, which of the following high-energy muscle compounds can he rely on for quick energy in this event?
Answer

Fat

Lactate

Creatine phosphate

Adenosine diphosphate

C

In the average person, the amount of stored glycogen represents how many kcal?
Answer

500

1000

2000

4000

C

What is the chief adverse effect from drinking a carbonated beverage before engaging in athletic activity?
Answer

The carbonic acid inhibits fluid absorption

The bubbles induce chronic burping and so inhibit performance

The bubbles induce feelings of fullness quickly and so limit fluid intake

The carbonic acid promotes gastroesophageal reflux leading to upper GI discomfort

A

Which of the following is a characteristic of sodium in athletes?
Answer

There is a direct correlation between heat-induced cramps and the amount of sodium lost in the sweat

Sports drinks that contain sodium polymers can more quickly replace sodium losses from severe sweating

The sodium lost through heavy sweating can be easily replaced by consuming any of the common sports drinks

Hyponatremia is more likely to develop when water intake during intense exercise in hot weather is withheld and salted snacks are consumed

C

What should be the composition of the last (pregame) meal before an athletic event?
Answer

High-protein, providing 30 kcal per kg body weight

Vegetable and fruit juices, providing 100 to 200 kcal

High-carbohydrate, low-fiber, providing 300 to 800 kcal

High-fiber, providing 200 to 300 kcal and liberal amounts of fluid, which is beneficially retained by the fiber in the GI tract

B

Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed
Answer

15 minutes.

60 minutes.

1 hours.

3 hours.

C

Your friend Bob, who engages in endurance exercise throughout the week, is concerned that his protein intake is inadequate and asks what type of protein supplement he should take. You assure him that
Answer

all high-quality protein drinks are equivalent despite the price differences.

the extra protein he needs should be high-quality lean sources of poultry and fish.

he most likely already gets more protein from his regular diet than he needs, even for endurance activity.

no sports authority organizations recommend protein intakes greater than the RDA for endurance athletes.

B

During physical performance, what is the role of creatine phosphate?
Answer

Removal of lactic acid

Transfer of energy to make ATP

Removal of nitrogen waste products

Transfer of phosphate to muscle fiber

B

About how many kcal are supplied by 8 oz of the typical sports drink?
Answer

5-10

50-100

250-500

500-1,000

C

What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
Answer

Fats

Proteins

Carbohydrates

Chromium and iron

D

If a person's maximum heart rate is 220 beats/min, what is the safe maximum heart rate during vigorous exercise?
Answer

110

142

165

198

B

Which of the following is a characteristic of sports anemia?
Answer

It requires prolonged treatment

It is a temporary condition requiring no treatment

It responds to treatment only with high doses of iron

It is due primarily to increased iron loss via perspiration

C

Which of the following is a feature of caffeine use in physical activity?
Answer

Caffeine is widely abused by endurance athletes because it cannot be detected by blood or urine tests

Caffeine enhances performance by stimulating glycogen breakdown and increasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells

College and national competitions prohibit the use of caffeine in amounts greater than that present in 5 cups of coffee when consumed within a few hours before testing

The usual side effects of caffeine use such as irritability, headaches, and diarrhea are delayed or diminished in endurance athletes because of their high metabolic rates during competition

C

Which of the following is a feature of creatine supplementation in athletes?
Answer

It may enhance performance of endurance athletes

Long-term use adversely affects liver and kidney function

It may enhance performance of weight lifters and sprinters

It induces short-term weight loss consisting primarily of lean tissue

C

During a physical activity, what hormone signals the fat cells to begin releasing their fatty acids?
Answer

Leptin

Glucagon

Epinephrine

Neuropeptide-Y

D

How can water loss from the body be quickly estimated at the end of a physical activity?
Answer

Multiply body weight (kg) by 1% to determine liters of water loss

Multiply duration of activity (min) by body weight (kg) to determine mL of water loss

Subtract air temperature (°F) from body weight (lbs) and then multiply by 5 to determine mL of water loss

Take the difference in body weight (lbs) before and after the event and multiply by 2 to determine cups of water loss

B

For optimal performance, the athlete's precompetition meal may include all of the following except
Answer

pasta.

beans.

breads.

potatoes.

B

What is the minimum amount of fluid that an athlete should drink for each pound of body weight lost during an activity?
Answer

1/4 liter

1/2 liter

1 liter

2 liters

C

Substantial health benefits may be achieved by engaging in a moderately intense level of exercise at a frequency of at least
Answer

10 minutes/day.

20 minutes/day.

2.5 hours/week.

5 hours/week.

D

Which of the following is a feature of chromium in physical performance?
Answer

Chromium from ginseng shows high bioavailability

Athletes may obtain sufficient chromium from green leafy vegetables and legumes

Supplements of chromium chloride enhance free fatty acid release but inhibit fatty acid oxidation

Most recent studies on chromium picolinate supplementation show no favorable effects on strength or lean body mass

A

Which of the following best exemplifies an activity that promotes flexibility?
Answer

Yoga

Pilates

Weight lifting

Jumping rope

B

What nutrient becomes depleted most rapidly during physical exercise?
Answer

Iron

Water

Glucose

Glycogen

C

When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted?
Answer

Water

Protein

Glucose

Fatty acids

B

The duration of exercise warm-up and cool-down periods should be
Answer

1-2 minutes each.

5-10 minutes each.

15 minutes each.

2 minutes warm-up and 4 minutes cool-down.

A

All of the following are characteristics of heat stroke except
Answer

it is rarely fatal.

it is due, in part, to dehydration.

it is caused by heat buildup in the body.

its symptoms include headache, nausea, and mental changes.

B

A person engaged in physically active work in hot, humid weather and who wears a rubber suit to promote weight loss is at high risk of experiencing
Answer

ketosis.

heat stroke.

hypothermia.

overhydration.

C

The recommended amount of dietary carbohydrate (g/kg body weight) for an athlete training for a marathon is approximately
Answer

2.

4.

8.

12.

D

In weight training, muscle endurance can best be emphasized by combining a
Answer

low number of repetitions with heavy weight.

low number of repetitions with lighter weight.

high number of repetitions with heavy weight.

high number of repetitions with lighter weight.

D

In the immediate postexercise period, what type of diet enhances muscle protein synthesis?
Answer

Protein alone

Carbohydrate alone

Carbohydrate plus fat

Carbohydrate plus protein

A

In weight training, muscle strength can best be emphasized by combining a
Answer

low number of repetitions with heavy weight.

low number of repetitions with lighter weight.

high number of repetitions with heavy weight.

high number of repetitions with lighter weight.

B

For most physically active people, all of the following are valid reasons for consuming sports drinks except
Answer

they may provide a psychological advantage.

they are better than water at preventing sodium depletion.

they contain a source of fuel, which may enhance performance in endurance events.

they have a good taste, which encourages their consumption and ensures adequate hydration.

A

Which of the following is a feature of protein nutrition in physical activity?
Answer

Protein is not a major fuel for physical activity

Body protein synthesis rates increase about 10% during physical activity

Protein contributes 30% more to total fuel used for physical activity than during rest

Body protein synthesis rates decline about 30% for several hours after physical activity

C

For optimal performance of endurance athletes, sports nutritionists recommend approximately how much dietary fat energy?
Answer

5-10%

10-15%

20-35%

35-45%

D

What type of meal and time of its ingestion promote the most rapid repletion of glycogen stores after physical activity?
Answer

Mixed meal taken within 4 hours

Mixed meal taken within 30 minutes

High-carbohydrate meal taken within 2 hours

High-carbohydrate meal taken within 15 minutes

C

Which of the following is a feature of creatine supplementation in athletes?
Answer

It may enhance performance of endurance athletes

Long-term use adversely affects liver and kidney function

It may enhance performance of weight lifters and sprinters

It induces short-term weight loss consisting primarily of lean tissue

C

Which of the following would be the best choice for physically active people who need to rehydrate?
Answer

"Sweat" replacers

Salt tablets and tap water

Diluted juice or cool water

Water warmed to body temperature

D

All of the following are categorized as fitness strength activities except
Answer

pilates.

pull-ups.

push-ups.

kickboxing.

A

Which of the following describes an effect of caffeine use in the athlete?
Answer

It stimulates fatty acid release

It enhances performance for almost all athletes

It raises blood pH to counteract the buildup of lactate

It promotes absorption of electrolytes from the intestinal tract

A

The first sign of dehydration is typically
Answer

fatigue.

dizziness.

intense thirst.

intense sweating.

A

What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions?
Answer

Iron

Calcium

Thiamin

Vitamin C

C

Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes?
Answer

Salt tablets

Protein powders

Nutrient-dense foods

Vitamin and mineral supplements

B

Pat has gained about 20 pounds in the past 5 years and has come to you for help with a diet and exercise regimen. In order to promote optimal fat loss through exercise, in which of the following activities should Pat participate?
Answer

Wearing an electrical impulse belt throughout the day

Low- to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise like hiking

High-intensity aerobic activity like cycling, swimming, or running

Very high-intensity anaerobic activity like mile run at maximal speed

A

What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?
Answer

Fat

Protein

Glycogen

Blood glucose

D

What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?
Answer

Low-protein

High-protein

Low-carbohydrate

High-carbohydrate

B

Which of the following is a role for diet in physical activity?
Answer

Diets high in fat lead to a fall in amino acid utilization for fuel

Diets lacking in carbohydrates lead to increased amino acid utilization for fuel

Deficiencies of vitamins have no effect on performance provided that all other nutrients are adequate

Deficiencies of minerals have no effect on performance provided that all other nutrients are adequate

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