micro chapter 9

Created by caseydenise91 

Upgrade to
remove ads

87 terms

Semiconservative replication refers to

An original parent DNA strand and one newly synthesized DNA strand comprising a new DNA molecule

Which is incorrect about purines?

only found in dna, not rna

This molecule is synthesized as a copy of a gene on the DNA template strand

messenger rna

The three-base sequence on DNA that codes for an amino acid is called a(n)

codon

Among the microorganisms, various genomes can include
All of the choices are correct
Mitochondrial DNA
Chromosomes
Plasmids
Chloroplast DNA

all of the choices are correct

Okazaki fragments are attached to the growing end of the lagging strand by
DNA polymerase
DNA helicase
Primase
DNA gyrase
DNA ligase

dna ligase

The operon segment composed of the gene that code for a protein repressor is called the
Operator
Regulator
Structural locus
Promoter
None of the choices are correct

regulator

The jumping of a gene from one location to another is done by
Transmission
Conjugation
Transformation
Transposons
Transduction

transposons

The _____ is all of the genetic material of a cell.
Chromosome
Plasmid
Genome
Proteome
Prophage

genome

Synthesis of an inducible enzyme requires
Substrate bound to repressor
Substrate bound to promoter
Repressor alone bound to operator
Co repressor and repressor binding to operator
None of the choices are correct

substrate bound to repressor

Of the following list, which antibiotics affect protein synthesis?
chloramphenicol
ciprofloxacin
Both B and C
penicillin
tetracycline

ciprofloxacin

Which of the following is not true of conjugation?
Involves direct contact between cells
Transfers genes for a polysaccharide capsule
The donor retains a copy of the transferred genes
Transfers genes for drug resistance
Transfers genes for enzymes and adherence molecules

transfers genes for a polysaccharide capsule

DNA Polymerase I
All of the choices are correct
Adds bases to new DNA chain
Seals DNA gaps
Proofreads DNA chain
Removes primers

removes primers

The antiparallel arrangement within DNA molecules refers to
None of the choices are correct
An original parent DNA strand and one newly synthesized DNA strand comprising a new DNA molecule
A purine always bonding to a pyrimidine
Each base bonding at the 1' position of the sugar
One helix strand that runs from the 5' to 3' direction and the other strand runs from the 3' to 5' direction

one helix strand that runs from the 5' to 3' direction and the other strand runs from the 3' to 5' direction

DNA Polymerase III
Synthesizes primer
Joins Okazaki fragments
Removes primer
Unzips the DNA helix
Proofreads new DNA

proofreads new dna

In bacteria, initiator tRNA carries formyl methionine.
True
False

true

All of the following pertain to transcription except
Occurs before translation
Occurs on a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Requires RNA polymerase
Is a process of protein synthesis
Requires a template DNA strand

occurs on a ribosome in the cytoplasm

Hfr transfer involves all of the following except
F factor is part of the F+ donor chromosome
High frequency transfer
A pilus connection between F+ and F- cells
Gene integration into the bacterial chromosome
Plasmid gene transfer

plasmid gene transfer

The expression of genetic traits is the
Proteotype
Proteome
Genotype
Phenotype
Genome

phenotype

Bacterial conjugation involves
None of the choices are correct
Naked DNA fragments from a lysed donor cell are taken up by a recipient cell
New progeny cells with genes from two parent bacterial cells
A donor cell with a plasmid that synthesizes a pilus
Bacteriophage carrying donor DNA to the recipient cell

a donor cell with a plasmid that synthesizes a pilus

What type of mutation alters the base, but not the amino acid being coded for?
Point
Nonsense
Back
Silent
Missense

silent

Gene regulation can involve a protein repressor that blocks _____ from initiating transcription.
DNA polymerase I
RNA polymerase
rRNA
mRNA
DNA polymerase III

rna polymerase

Which of the following is incorrect about transfer RNA?
Has a bottom hairpin loop with an anticodon
An anticodon is complementary to a codon
The initiator tRNA that binds to the P site has the anticodon UAC
Contains a binding site for an amino acid
Initiator tRNA in bacteria carries tryptophan

iniatiator tRNA in bacteria carries tryptophan

The nontranscribed region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds to nitiate transcription is called the
Promoter
Exon
Operator
Intron
Operon

promoter

If a codon for alanine is GCA, then the anticodon is
CGT
UGC
CGU
GCA
ACG

CGU

The smallest unit of heredity is a chromosome.
True
False

false

Which of the following is incorrect about termination codons?
Are also called nonsense codons
Where the bond between the final tRNA and the polymerase is broken
Include AUG
Do not have corresponding tRNA
Include UAA, UAG, UGA

include AUG

A sequence of bases on a gene that does not code for protein is called a/an
Operator
Intron
Exon
Operon
Promoter

intron

nduced mutations result from errors in DNA replication.
True
False

false

Replication of DNA begins at a(n)
Guanine-cytosine rich area
Adenine-thymine rich area
Uracil-adenine rich area
Adenine-cytosine rich area
Guanine-adenine rich area

adenine-thymine rich area

Repressible operons are normally turned on in the cell.
True
False

true

Which of the following additions have been made to principles of the central dogma of biology?
Protein information can be converted into DNA information
DNA information cannot be converted into RNA information
All of these
RNA can be used to regulate gene function
DNA codes for proteins

rna can be used to regulate the gene function

The following pertain to ribosomes during protein synthesis except
Participate only in translation
Shift to the right along the mRNA strand from one codon to the next
Contain codons within their rRNA molecules
Bind to the 5' end of mRNA by their small subunit
Use their large subunit to supply enzymes for peptide bonding

contain codons within their rRNA molecule

RNA molecules differ from DNA molecules because only RNA
Is typically one strand of nucleotides
Has uracil
All of the choices are correct
Has ribose
Does not have thymine

all of the choices are correct

If the wild type DNA sequence reads THE CAT ATE THE BIG RAT, what type of mutation would change the sequence to THE CAT ATA ETH EBI GRA T?
Silent
Insertion
Nonsense
Missense
Deletion

insertion

The duplication of a cell's DNA is called
Translation
Replication
Mitosis
Mutation
Transcription

replication

Which cell can transfer the most DNA?
R cell
B cell
F- cell
Hfr cell
F+ cell

Hfr cell

Each nucleotide is composed of
One phosphate, one nitrogenous base, one sugar
One phosphate, one nitrogenous base, two sugars
One phosphate, two nitrogenous bases, one sugar
Two phosphates, one nitrogenous base, one sugar
Two phosphates, one nitrogenous base, two sugars

one phospate, one nitrogenous base, one sugar

Helicase
Unwinds DNA
None of the choices are correct
Supercoils DNA
Unwinds RNA
Winds RNA

unwinds DNA

Split genes
Are common in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Have introns located only at the beginning and end of a coding region
Only have exons initially transcribed to mRNA
Use spliceosomes to excise introns and then join exons
All of the choices are correct

use spliceosomes to excise introns and then join exons

Synthesis of a repressible enzyme is inhibited by
None of the choices are correct
Corepressor and repressor binding to operator
Substrate bound to promoter
Repressor alone bound to operator
Substrate bound to repressor

corepressor and repressor binding to operater

A bacteriophage transfers DNA of the previous host to the current host. This is an example of
Specialized transduction
Generalized transduction
Conjugation
Creation of an Hfr cell
None of the choices are correct

generalized transduction

If the wild type DNA sequence reads THE CAT ATE THE BIG RAT, what type of mutation would change the sequence to THE CAT ATE THE BAG RAT?
Silent
Insertion
Missense
Deletion
Nonsense

missense

he most serious type of mutation is a
Back mutation
Silent mutation
Frameshift mutation
Point mutation
All the choices are equally serious

frameshift mutation

A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a(n)
Alteration
Regeneration
Transcription
Translation

mutation

Eukaryotic chromosomes differ from prokaryotic chromosomes because only eukaryotes have
Elongated, not circular, chromosomes
Chromosomes in a nucleus
Histone proteins
All of the choices are correct
Several to many chromosomes

all of the choices are correct

The DNA of microorganisms is made up of subunits called
mRNA
Nucleotides
Amino acids
Histones
Polymerases

nucleotides

DNA gyrase
Unwinds DNA
Cleaves DNA
Supercoils DNA
None of the choices are correct
Joins free DNA ends

supercoils DNA

The transfer of DNA fragments from a dead cell to a live, competent recipient cell that results in a changed recipient cell is
Transformation
Mitosis
Transmission
Conjugation
Transduction

transformation

In Griffith's experiments with Streptococcus pneumoniae, rough non-encapsulated Streptococci were converted into smooth encapsulated Streptococci in the presence of the heat- killed smooth encapsulated Streptococci. What is the term that describes this process?
conjugation
transformation
cloning
transduction

conjugation

A nucleosome is a linear chromosome wound around the
Histone
rRNA
mRNA
Nuclear membrane
Nucleolus

histone

Base pairs in DNA are held together by _____ bonds.
Hydrogen
Sulfhydryl
Non polar covalent
Peptide
Polar covalent

hydrogen bonds

DNA polymerase III
Is needed for adding nucleotides during mRNA synthesis
Synthesizes new DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction
Cannot add nucleotides to the lagging strand
All of the choices are correct
Synthesizes an RNA primer

synthesizes new DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction

A mutation that changes a normal codon to a stop codon is called a
Point mutation
Nonsense mutation
Silent mutation
Missense mutation
Back mutation

nonsense mutation

The enzyme that can proofreads replicating DNA, detects incorrect bases, excises them, and correctly replaces them is
Primase
DNA gyrase
DNA ligase
DNA polymerase
DNA helicase

DNA polymerase

A screening system called the _____ test is used for detecting chemicals with carcinogenic potential.
Iowa
Mutation
Koch
Cancer
Ames

ames

A primer of ____ is needed at the origin of nucleotide addition.
DNA
Helicase
Polymerase III
Polymerase I
RNA

RNA

RNA polymerase binds to the
None of the choices are correct
Regulation sequence
Start codon
Termination sequence
Promoter sequence

promoter sequence

All of the following pertain to nitrogenous bases except
Cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines
Form pairs by hydrogen bonding
Adenine pairs with thymine
Guanine pairs with uracil
Allows variation from one nucleotide to another which creates the encoded information

guanine pairs with uracil

Repressible operons require that _____ bind to the repressor protein before it can bind to the operator.
A coenzyme
The reactant
A cofactor
The substrate
The product

the product

All mutations are not beneficial to the cell.
True
False

false

The process in which mutations are removed and the correct bases added is called
Back-mutation
Frameshift
Transformation
Transduction
Excision repair

excision repair

Which of the following is not a type of microRNA?
Riboswitch
miRNA
Antisense
tRNA
siRNA

tRNA

Which of the following is not a type of bacterial DNA recombination?
Conjugation
Mitosis
Transduction
None of the above
Transformation

mitosis

Which is incorrect about inducible operons?
Have genes turned off by a buildup of end product
Are often for catabolic pathways
Are normally turned off
Include the lac operon
Are turned on by the substrate of the enzyme

have genes turned off by a build up of end product

DNA polymerase can only add new nucleotides to the old 3' DNA end.
True
False

true

The enzyme that helps pack DNA into the cell by coiling the DNA into a tight bundle is:
DNA gyrase
DNA polymerase
Primase
DNA ligase
DNA helicase

DNA helicase

During replication, each parent DNA strand serves as a _____ for synthesis of new DNA strands.
Copy point
Template
Scaffold
Reservoir
Comparison molecule

template

Transcription occurs in the nucleus or at the nucleoid.
True
False

true

Which of the following is not associated with a prokaryotic ribosome?
Has a peptide (P) site
Has an amino acid (A) site
Has an exit site
Is a 70s
Small unit provides the enzymes for making peptide bonds

small unit provides the enzymes for making peptide bonds

A frameshift is caused by ______ mutations?
Missense and insertion
Insertion and nonsense
Deletion and insertion
Nonsense and deletion
Missense and nonsense

deletion and insertion

Which of the following is not true of transposons?
Can replace damaged DNA
Are always part of plasmids
Can change the genome
Can change pigmentation
Can transfer drug resistance

are always part of plasmids

Excised introns form structures called lariats.
True
False

true

If the wild type DNA sequence reads THE CAT ATE THE BIG RAT, what type of mutation would change the sequence to THE CAT ATE (stop)?
Nonsense
Deletion
Missense
Insertion
Silent

nonsense

The site where the old DNA strands separate and new DNA strands will be synthesized is called the
Okazaki fragment
Rolling circle
Replication fork
Primer
Template

replication fork

DNA photolyase, in the presence of visible light, can repair DNA damage due to ultraviolet radiation.
True
False

true

The development of virulent, toxin-producing bacterial strains due to the presence of a temperate phage can occur in
Specialized transduction
All of the choices are correct
Transformation
Generalized transduction
Bacterial conjugation

specialized transduction

he lactose repressor
Requires lactose for its transcription
Is activated by binding lactose
Is transcribed with the structural lac genes
None of the choices are correct
Is inactivated by binding lactose

is inactivated by binding lactose

The RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis are called
Primer RNA
Transfer RNA
Ribosomal RNA
Ribozymes
Messenger RNA

transfer RNA

DNA replication proceeds in one direction around the bacterial chromosome.
True
False

false

Groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one
Nucleotide
None of the choices are correct
Purine
Protein
Amino acid

amino acid

Which of the following is not true of an organism's genotype?
Are structural genes coding for proteins
Is inherited
Are the expressed traits governed by the genes
Are regulatory genes controlling gene expression
Are genes coding for RNA

are expressed traits covered by the genes

Each _____ is a specific segment of the DNA with the code for production of one functional product.
Triplet
Exon
Operator
Gene
Intron

gene

Full induction of the lactose operon requires
Lactose and glucose present
Lactose present without glucose
Lactose present
All of the choices induce the lactose operon
Lactose and arabinose present

lactose present without glucose

Lactose is a corepressor in the lac operon.
True
False

false

Introns have no detectable functions.
True
False

false

Structural genes code for
Ribosomal RNA molecules
Gene expression elements
All of the choices are correct
Transfer RNA molecules
Cellular proteins

cellular proteins

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set