Which of the following would result from a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood?
What term is used to describe a deficit of all types of blood cells?
Following hemolysis, which part of the hemoglobin molecule produces bilirubin?
Vitamin K is required by the liver to synthesize:
Individuals with type O blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood:
lacks A and B antigens
Which of the following is considered to be a compensation mechanism for individuals with anemia?
Chronic blood loss causes anemia because of the:
smaller amount of recycled iron available
What is the cause of sickle-cell anemia?
a defective gene inherited from both parents
Which of the following best describes the characteristic erythrocyte associated with pernicious anemia?
megaloblastic or macrocytic nucleated cells
What causes numbness and tingling in the fingers of individuals with untreated pernicious anemia?
vitamin B12 deficit causing peripheral nerve demyelination
Jaundice is likely to be a sign of ___________?
sickle cell anemia
Choose the typical early general signs/symptoms of anemia
pallor, dyspnea, and fatigue
What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any severe anemia?
deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis
Which of the following is present with pernicious anemia?
Why is pernicious anemia treated with injections of vitamin B12?
The ingested vitamin would not be absorbed into the blood.
Why do abnormally low hemoglobin values develop with pernicious anemia?
shorter lifespan of erythrocytes
What are the common early signs of aplastic anemia?
excessive bleeding and recurrent infections
Why do vascular occlusions and infarcts occur frequently with sickle-cell anemia?
Erythrocytes change shape of when hypoxia occurs.
Which of the following applies to sickle-cell trait?
Sickling of erythrocytes occurs with severe hypoxia.
What is the basic abnormality in thalassemia?
There is failure to synthesize either the alpha or beta chains in the hemoglobin molecule.
Which of the following is considered to result from a malabsorption problem?
In individuals with pernicious anemia, antibodies form to:
intrinsic factor or parietal cells
In cases of polycythemia vera, blood pressure is elevated due to:
increased blood volume
Petechiae and purpura are common signs of:
increased bleeding tendencies
Which statement applies to the disorder hemophilia A?
Hematomas and hemarthroses are common.
Which of the following occur when disseminated intravascular coagulation develops?
multiple thrombi and deficit of clotting factors
Which of the following substances is classified as an anticoagulant?
In individuals with acute leukemia, the increased number of malignant leukocytes leads to:
1. decreased hemoglobin
Multiple opportunistic infections develop with acute leukemia primarily because:
many circulating leukocytes are immature
Why is excessive bleeding a common occurrence with acute leukemia?
Predisposing factors to leukemia commonly include:
exposure to radiation
Which of the following is typical of Hodgkin's disease?
initial tumor is single, painless, enlarged lymph node, often cervical
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma differs from Hodgkin's lymphoma in that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma usually presents as
multiple, scattered, enlarged and painless lymph nodes
Multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor involving
What is the primary treatment for the leukemias?
Which of the following statements apply to hemochromocytosis? It is:
a metabolic error leads to excess amounts of hemosiderin, causing damage to organs
Thalassemia is caused by:
a defect in one or more genes for hemoglobin
Secondary polycythemia may be associated with:
severe chronic bronchitis
All of the following apply to vitamin K EXCEPT:
the bone marrow requires it to synthesize hemoglobin
The Reed-Sternberg cell is diagnostic for:
Leukemia is sometimes linked to chromosome abnormalities, as evidenced by:
the presence of Philadelphia chromosome translocation in cases of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
Iron-deficiency anemia frequently results from any of the following EXCEPT:
Which of the following applies to the leukemias?
Chronic leukemias are more common in older people.
A high percentage of blast cells in the leukocyte population indicates a poor prognosis for an individual with:
acute myelogenous leukemia
Which of the following applies to erythropoietin?
It stimulates production of red blood cells.
Which of the following diagnostic tests would be within the normal range for an individual with hemophilia A?
Which of the following applies to the condition disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)?
It is usually a secondary complication.
In which blood dyscrasia does pancytopenia develop?
Which of the following applies to the etiology of aplastic anemia? It is
a. idiopathic in many cases
c. predisposed by exposure to myelotoxins
Which stage of Hodgkin's lymphoma would be identified when several malignant lymph nodes are found in two regions on the same side of the diaphragm?