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Which of the following would result from a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood?

decreased hematocrit

What term is used to describe a deficit of all types of blood cells?

pancytopenia

Following hemolysis, which part of the hemoglobin molecule produces bilirubin?

heme

Vitamin K is required by the liver to synthesize:

prothrombin

Individuals with type O blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood:

lacks A and B antigens

Which of the following is considered to be a compensation mechanism for individuals with anemia?

tachycardia

Chronic blood loss causes anemia because of the:

smaller amount of recycled iron available

What is the cause of sickle-cell anemia?

a defective gene inherited from both parents

Which of the following best describes the characteristic erythrocyte associated with pernicious anemia?

megaloblastic or macrocytic nucleated cells

What causes numbness and tingling in the fingers of individuals with untreated pernicious anemia?

vitamin B12 deficit causing peripheral nerve demyelination

Jaundice is likely to be a sign of ___________?

sickle cell anemia

Choose the typical early general signs/symptoms of anemia

pallor, dyspnea, and fatigue

What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any severe anemia?

deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis

Which of the following is present with pernicious anemia?

hypochlorhydria

Why is pernicious anemia treated with injections of vitamin B12?

The ingested vitamin would not be absorbed into the blood.

Why do abnormally low hemoglobin values develop with pernicious anemia?

shorter lifespan of erythrocytes

What are the common early signs of aplastic anemia?

excessive bleeding and recurrent infections

Why do vascular occlusions and infarcts occur frequently with sickle-cell anemia?

Erythrocytes change shape of when hypoxia occurs.

Which of the following applies to sickle-cell trait?

Sickling of erythrocytes occurs with severe hypoxia.

What is the basic abnormality in thalassemia?

There is failure to synthesize either the alpha or beta chains in the hemoglobin molecule.

Which of the following is considered to result from a malabsorption problem?

pernicious anemia

In individuals with pernicious anemia, antibodies form to:

intrinsic factor or parietal cells

In cases of polycythemia vera, blood pressure is elevated due to:

increased blood volume

Petechiae and purpura are common signs of:

increased bleeding tendencies

Which statement applies to the disorder hemophilia A?

Hematomas and hemarthroses are common.

Which of the following occur when disseminated intravascular coagulation develops?

multiple thrombi and deficit of clotting factors

Which of the following substances is classified as an anticoagulant?

heparin

In individuals with acute leukemia, the increased number of malignant leukocytes leads to:

1. decreased hemoglobin
2. thrombocytopenia
4. splenomegaly

Multiple opportunistic infections develop with acute leukemia primarily because:

many circulating leukocytes are immature

Why is excessive bleeding a common occurrence with acute leukemia?

decreased platelets

Predisposing factors to leukemia commonly include:

exposure to radiation

Which of the following is typical of Hodgkin's disease?

initial tumor is single, painless, enlarged lymph node, often cervical

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma differs from Hodgkin's lymphoma in that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma usually presents as

multiple, scattered, enlarged and painless lymph nodes

Multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor involving

plasma cells

What is the primary treatment for the leukemias?

chemotherapy

Which of the following statements apply to hemochromocytosis? It is:

a metabolic error leads to excess amounts of hemosiderin, causing damage to organs

Thalassemia is caused by:

a defect in one or more genes for hemoglobin

Secondary polycythemia may be associated with:

severe chronic bronchitis

All of the following apply to vitamin K EXCEPT:

the bone marrow requires it to synthesize hemoglobin

The Reed-Sternberg cell is diagnostic for:

Hodgkin's lymphoma

Leukemia is sometimes linked to chromosome abnormalities, as evidenced by:

the presence of Philadelphia chromosome translocation in cases of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

Iron-deficiency anemia frequently results from any of the following EXCEPT:

diabetes mellitus

Which of the following applies to the leukemias?

Chronic leukemias are more common in older people.

A high percentage of blast cells in the leukocyte population indicates a poor prognosis for an individual with:

acute myelogenous leukemia

Which of the following applies to erythropoietin?

It stimulates production of red blood cells.

Which of the following diagnostic tests would be within the normal range for an individual with hemophilia A?

bleeding time

Which of the following applies to the condition disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)?

It is usually a secondary complication.

In which blood dyscrasia does pancytopenia develop?

aplastic anemia

Which of the following applies to the etiology of aplastic anemia? It is

a. idiopathic in many cases
c. predisposed by exposure to myelotoxins

Which stage of Hodgkin's lymphoma would be identified when several malignant lymph nodes are found in two regions on the same side of the diaphragm?

Stage II

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