Chapter 20: Acids and Bases

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acid

a compound that produces hydrogen ions in a solution

acid dissociation constant

the ratio of the concentration of the dissociated form of an acid to the undissociated form

acidic solution

any solution in which the hydrogen ion concentration is greater than the hydroxide ion concentration

alkaline solution

a basic solution

amphoteric

a substance that can act as both an acid and a base

base

a compound that produces hydroxide ions in a solution

base dissociation constant

the ratios of the concentration of the dissociated form of a base to the dissociated form

basic solution

any solution in which the hydroxide ions concentration is greater than the hydrogen ion concentration

conjugate acid

the particle formed when the base gains a hydrogen ion

conjugate acid-base pair

2 substances that are related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion

conjugate base

the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion

diprotic acid

any acid that contains 2 ionizable protons

hydrogen ion acceptor

a base

hydrogen ion donor

an acid

hydronium ion

the positive ion formed when a when a water molecule gains a hydrogen ion

ion-product constant for water

the product of the hydrogen ion and hydrogen ion concentrations in water

Lewis acid

any substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond

Lewis base

any substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond

monoprotic acid

any acid that contains one ionizable proton

neutral solution

an aqueous solution in which the concentrations of hydrogen and hyroxide ions are equal

pH

a number used to denote the acidity of a solution

self-ionization

describes the reaction in which two water molecules react to produce ions

strong acid

an acid that is almost completely ionized in an aqueous solution

strong base

a base that completely dissociates into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions

triprotic acid

any acid that contains 5 ionizable protons

weak acid

an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution

weak base

a base that does not dissociate completely in aqueous solution

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