A 39-year-old male was struck in the head by a line drive during a baseball game. He is confused, has a large hematoma to the center of his forehead, and cannot remember the events preceding the injury. After manually stabilizing his head and assessing his airway, you should:
administer high flow oxygen.
An abdominal evisceration:
occurs when organs protrude through an open wound.
When a person is exposed to a cold environment:
peripheral vessels constrict and divert blood away from the skin
A utility worker was trimming branches and was electrocuted when he accidentally cut a high-power line. He fell approximately 20 feet and is lying unconscious on the ground; the power line is lying across his chest. You should:
rapidly assess the patient after ensuring the power line is not live
In which of the following patients should you remove an impaled object?
A pulseless and apneic patient with a knife impaled in the back
Which of the following statements regarding severe burns is MOST correct
Severe burns are typically a combination of all degrees of burn
Which of the following areas of the body has the thinnest skin?
With regard to the pediatric rule of nines, the:
legs are proportionately smaller than an adult's
A 50-year-old male with a history of diabetes sustained partial-thickness burns to approximately 15% of his body surface area (BSA) while attempting to light a barbeque pit. He is conscious and alert and in no respiratory distress. What factor makes this patient's burn a critical burn?
His history of diabetes
is a jagged cut caused by a sharp object or blunt force trauma
You and your partner arrive at the scene of a house fire where fire fighters have rescued a 50-year-old male from his burning house. The patient has superficial and partial-thickness burns to his face and chest. His nasal hairs are singed and he is coughing up sooty sputum. You should be MOST concerned with:
potential for airway swelling
According to the palmar method for estimating the extent of a patient's burns, the palm of the patient's hand is equal to ___% of the body surface area.
All of the following body structures are lined with mucous membranes, EXCEPT for the:
Burns to pediatric patients are generally considered more serious than burns to adults because:
pediatric patients have more surface area relative to total body mass.
Critical burns in an infant, child or geriatric patient include:
partial-thickness burns to more than 20% of the body surface area.
Patients with full-thickness (third-degree) burns generally do not complain of pain because:
because the nerve endings have been destroyed
You have applied a dressing and roller-gauze bandage to the arm of a young female after she lacerated it when she fell from her bike. During transport, she begins to complain of numbness and tingling in her hand. You should:
assess distal circulation and readjust the bandage as needed
Which of the following is considered to be a critical burn?
Circumferential partial-thickness burns to the chest
Which of the following statements regarding the rule of nines is MOST correct?
The anterior trunk of an adult is equal to 18% of the body surface area
Which of the following statements regarding electrical burns is MOST correct?
Entrance wounds are small relative to the amount of internal tissue damage
A hematoma develops when:
large blood vessels beneath the skin are damaged.
Functions of dressings and bandages include all of the following, EXCEPT:
immobilization of the injury
What layer of the skin forms a watertight, protective seal for the body?
An 8-year-old male was bitten by a stray dog. He has a large laceration to the dorsum of his left hand, which your partner covers with a sterile dressing and bandage. In addition to transporting the child to the hospital, you should:
report the incident to the appropriate authorities
You are assessing a 30-year-old male with an amputation just above the left wrist. He is conscious and alert and has a patent airway. Dark red blood is freely flowing from the injury. You should
apply direct pressure to the injury site
The sebaceous glands produce sebum, a substance that:
waterproofs the skin and keeps it supple.
During an altercation in a bar, two patrons got into a fist fight. The first patient, a 44-year-old female, was struck in the mouth and refuses EMS care. The second patient, a 39-year-old female, has a small laceration to her left knuckle and also refuses EMS care. Which of the following statements regarding this scenario is MOST correct?
The 39-year-old female is at high risk for an infection
Compartment syndrome would MOST likely develop following a:
In addition to external bleeding, the MOST significant risk that an open soft tissue injury exposes a patient to is:
When caring for an amputated body part, the EMT-B should:
keep it cool without allowing it to freeze
A 33-year-old male sustained an abdominal evisceration to the left lower quadrant of his abdomen after he was cut with a large knife. After appropriately managing his airway and assessing him for other life-threatening injuries, you should care for his wound by:
Cover it with moist, sterile gauze and secure with an occlusive dressing
When assessing the severity of a patient's burn(s), you should routinely consider all of the following factors, EXCEPT:
known drug allergies
During your assessment of a patient who was shot in the abdomen, you notice a large entrance wound with multiple small puncture wounds surrounding it. This wound pattern is MOST consistent with a:
When caring for a patient whose arm is covered with a dry chemical, you should:
brush away the chemical before flushing with water.
A 38-year-old male was electrocuted while attempting to wire a house. Your assessment reveals that he is unresponsive, pulseless, and apneic. A coworker has shut off the power to the house. You should:
initiate CPR and attach the AED
A construction worker fell approximately 30 feet and landed in a pile of steel rods. Your assessment reveals that he is pulseless and apneic and has a steel rod impaled in his left leg. You should:
control the bleeding, begin CPR, stabilize the steel rod, immobilize his spine, and transport immediately.
Which of the following statements regarding penetrating injuries is MOST correct?
External bleeding may be minimal but internal injuries can be extensive
During your assessment of a 22-year-old male who was assaulted, you note widespread contusions and abrasions to his face, chest, and abdomen. His pulse is rapid and weak and his skin is cool and clammy. You should:
administer oxygen and prepare for rapid transport.
When assessing a patient with a closed soft tissue injury, it is MOST important to:
remain alert for more severe underlying injuries.
A 21-year-old male was working in an auto repair shop and sustained radiator burns to the anterior aspect of both arms and to his anterior chest. According to the rule of nines, this patient has burns that cover ____ of his body surface area.
Burns are MOST appropriately classified according to:
depth and extent
When treating a partial-thickness burn, you should:
avoid the use of creams, lotions, or antiseptics
A partial-thickness burn involves the outer layer of skin and a portion of the:
In addition to severe bleeding, the MOST life-threatening complication associated with an open neck injury is:
an air embolism
Which of the following open soft tissue injuries is limited to the superficial layer of the skin and results in the least amount of blood loss?
Functions of the skin include all of the following, EXCEPT:
the production of key antibodies
Common signs and symptoms of an airway burn include all of the following, EXCEPT:
In contrast to animal bites, the bite of a human:
carries with it a wide variety of virulent bacteria and viruses.
Which of the following statements regarding the dermis is MOST correct?
The dermis contains hair follicles, sweat glands, and nerve endings
A burn that is characterized by redness and pain is classified as a:
A 30-year-old male experienced a crushing injury when his arm was trapped between the back of a truck and a loading dock. Upon your arrival, the man's arm has been freed. Your assessment reveals that his arm is obviously deformed and swollen and is cold and pale. Further assessment reveals an absent radial pulse. You should be MOST concerned that this patient is experiencing:
A 56-year-old male has an incomplete avulsion to his right forearm. After controlling any bleeding from the wound, you should:
replace the avulsed flap to its original position and cover it with a sterile dressing.
Swelling in a confined space that produces dangerous pressure; may cut off blood flow or damage sensitive tissue.
Compartment syndrome *
Which of the following statements regarding crush syndrome is correct?
Compromised arterial blood flow leads to crush syndrome and can occur when an area of the body is trapped for longer than 4 hours.
An injury that separates various layers of soft tissue, resulting in complete detachment or a flap of skin, is called an
A 17-year-old male was shot in the right anterior chest during an altercation with a gang member. As your partner is applying 100% oxygen, you perform a rapid secondary assessment and find an open chest wound with a small amount of blood bubbling from it. You should:
apply an occlusive dressing to the wound and continue your assessment
Which of the following processes occurs during the inflammation phase of the healing process?
The immune system releases histamines, which cause vasodilation and increased capillary permeability, resulting in local redness and swelling
The germinal layer of the epidermis contains pigment granules that are responsible for skin:
In order for electricity to flow through the body and cause damage:
a complete circuit must exist between the electrical source and the ground
Which of the following is a severe burn in a 35-year-old patient?
circumferential partial-thickness burn to the chest
Which of the following is a severe burn in a 65-year-old patient?
partial-thickness burn to 20% of the BSA
As you approach a young male who was involved in an industrial accident, you note that his eyes are closed and that he is not moving. You can see several large contusions to his arms, a laceration to his forehead with minimal bleeding, and a closed deformity to his right leg. You should:
open his airway and assess his breathing status
A closed soft-tissue injury characterized by swelling and ecchymosis is called a
During the normal wound healing process, bleeding may occur from even a minor injury because:
new capillaries that stem from intact capillaries are delicate and take time to become as stable as the preexisting capillaries
After the first 60 minutes of experiencing a significant injury:
the body's ability to compensate for shock decreases
Which of the following is a severe burn in a 2-year-old child?
any full-thickness burn, regardless of its location on the body
A 5-year-old female pulled a pot of boiling water from the stove. She has superficial and partial-thickness burns to her head and anterior trunk. What percentage of her body surface area has been burned?
A 4-year-old female pulled a pot of boiling water from the stove. She has superficial and partial-thickness burns to her head and anterior trunk. What percentage of her body surface area has been burned?
A teenage boy who was involved in a bicycle accident has a puncture wound where the bicycle kickstand impaled his leg. The MOST appropriate method for treating this injury is to:
unbolt the kickstand from the bike frame and stabilize it with bulky dressings
The hallmark sign of compartment syndrome is:
pain out of proportion to the injury.
Which of the following statements regarding the rule of nines is correct?
The anterior trunk of an adult is equal to 18% of the BSA.
When assessing a patient with a closed soft-tissue injury, it is MOST important to
remain alert for more severe underlying injuries