Chapter 17: The Heart

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In a centrifuged sample of blood, what makes up the buffy coat?
A. plasma
B. red blood cells
C. white blood cells and platelets
D. platelets only

C. white blood cells and platelets

Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?
A. distribution
B. regulation
C. hormone production
D. protection

C. hormone production

Which plasma constituent is the main contributor to osmotic pressure?
A. albumin
B. fibrinogen
C. beta globulins
D. alpha globulins

A. albumin

Which of the following does NOT stimulate erythrocyte production?
A. erythropoietin
B. hyperventilating
C. a drop in normal blood oxygen levels
D. testosterone

B. hyperventilating

Which of the following is correctly matched?
A. hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake
B. pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency
C. aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss
D. hemorrhagic anemia: red blood cells rupture

B. pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

Which leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?
A. eosinophil
B. neutrophil
C. basophil
D. lymphocyte

B. neutrophil

Which of the following represents a difference between extrinsic and intrinsic blood clotting pathways?
A. One leads to the production of prothrombin activator and the other does not.
B. One involves calcium ions while the other does not.
C. One is faster than the other.
D. One is triggered by tissue damage while the other cannot be triggered by tissue damage.

C. One is faster than the other.

Which of the following scenarios could result in HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn)?
A. A+ female pregnant with a B- baby
B. B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby
C. AB- female pregnant with an AB- baby
D. O+ female pregnant with a B+ baby

B. B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby

What is an embolus?
A. a stroke
B. a protein in the coagulation pathway
C. an anticoagulant
D. a blood clot that has broken loose and is floating freely in the bloodstream

D. a blood clot that has broken loose and is floating freely in the bloodstream

Choose the compatible transfusion.
A. Donate type AB blood to a recipient with type B blood.
B. Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
C. Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
D. Donate type A blood to a recipient with type B blood.

C. Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.

Which ABO blood type is considered to be the universal donor?
A. B
B. O
C. AB
D. A

B. O

Athletes who choose to use industry-produced EPO as a performance-enhancing drug to increase the effects of their naturally-produced EPO, will experience ______.
A. decreased production of EPO by their kidneys
B. decreased erythropoiesis
C. decreased reticulocyte counts
D. None of the listed responses is correct.

A. decreased production of EPO by their kidneys

In a cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy, the decision to utilize a CSF capable of specifically stimulating the production of only the granular leukocytes would require that the CSF acts exclusively on ______.
A. lymphoid stem cells
B. myeloid stem cells
C. myeloblasts
D. lymphoblasts

C. myeloblasts

During erythroblastosis fetalis, a Rh- mother's anti-Rh antibodies that have crossed the placenta will cause agglutination of the fetus's Rh+ RBCs. However, the reverse problem never happens when a Rh+ mother is pregnant with a Rh- fetus, that is, antibodies produced by the fetus cannot cause agglutination of the mother's Rh+ RBCs. This is true because ______.
A. agglutinins are physically too large to pass across the placenta
B. fetal antibodies are immature and non-functional
C. antibodies that can cause this agglutination are not produced by a fetus
D. the placenta is a barrier that prevents the passage of all antigens

C. antibodies that can cause this agglutination are not produced by a fetus

What is the average normal pH range of blood?
A. 4.65-4.75
B. 7.75-7.85
C. 7.35-7.45
D. 8.35-8.45

C. 7.35-7.45

Which of the following is not a distribution function of blood?
A. transport of metabolic wastes from cells
B. transport of hormones to their target organs
C. delivery of oxygen to body cells
D. transport of salts to maintain blood volume

D. transport of salts to maintain blood volume

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

A. prevention of blood loss
B. maintenance of adequate fluid volume
C. maintenance of normal pH in body tissue
D. maintenance of body temperature

A. prevention of blood loss

Which of the following statements does not describe blood?

A. Blood carries body cells to injured areas for repair
B. Blood varies from bright red to a dark red color.
C. Blood pH is normally between 7.34 7.45.
D. Blood is denser and more viscous than water.

A. Blood carries body cells to injured areas for repair

The __________ is the fluid portion of the blood.

A. buffy coat
B. hematocrit
C. hemoglobin
D. plasma

D. plasma

The majority of whole blood is __________.

A. erythrocytes
B. platelets
C. leukocytes
D. plasma

D. plasma

What is hematocrit a measure of?

A. Hematocrit is the percentage of leukocytes and platelets in a whole blood sample.
B. Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.
C. Hematocrit is the percentage of formed elements in a whole blood sample.
D. Hematocrit is the percentage of plasma in a whole blood sample.

B. Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.

What does dark red blood indicate?

A. oxygen-rich blood
B. saltiness of blood
C. pH of blood
D. oxygen-poor blood

D. oxygen-poor blood

Which of the following is true about blood plasma?

A. It contains about 20 dissolved components.
B. It is about 90% water.
C. The main protein component is hemoglobin.
D. It is the same as serum but without the clotting proteins.

B. It is about 90% water.

The plasma protein that is the major contributor to osmotic pressure is ________.

A. albumin
B. alpha globulin
C. gamma globulin
D. fibrinogen

A. albumin

The main protein in blood plasma is __________.

A. hemoglobin
B. erythropoietin
C. plasmin
D. albumin

D. albumin

[T/F] The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones.

FALSE

[T/F] Hemorrhagic anemias result from blood loss.

TRUE

[T/F] White blood cells are produced through the action of colony-stimulating factors.

TRUE

[T/F] Hemoglobin is made up of the protein heme and the red pigment globin.

FALSE

[T/F] Each hemoglobin molecule can transport two molecules of oxygen.

FALSE

[T/F] Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.

FALSE

[T/F] Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas.

TRUE

[T/F] Basophils increase in number when parasitic invasion occurs.

FALSE

[T/F] Leukopenia is an abnormally low number of leukocytes.

TRUE

[T/F] Leukocytes move through the circulatory system by amoeboid motion.

FALSE

[T/F] Granulocytes called neutrophils are phagocytic and are the most numerous of all white blood cell types.

TRUE

[T/F] All lymphocytes are leukocytes, but not all leukocytes are lymphocytes.

TRUE

[T/F] Myelocytic leukemia involves a cancerous condition of lymphocytes.

FALSE

Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?

A. hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
B. decreased tissue demand for oxygen
C. moving to a lower altitude
D. an increased number of RBCs

A. hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16 g/100 ml blood. This is ________.

A. within the normal range
B. abnormally low
C. above normal
D. normal only if James is an infant

A. within the normal range

All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except ________.

A. high hematocrit
B. low blood viscosity
C. high blood pressure
D. increased blood volume

B. low blood viscosity

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in ________.

A. monocytes
B. basophils
C. neutrophils
D. eosinophils

A. monocytes

Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?

A. They are phagocytic.
B. They are the most numerous of the formed elements in blood.
C. They are nucleated.
D. They have cytoplasmic granules.

C. They are nucleated.

Platelets ________.

A. have a life span of about 120 days
B. stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break
C. are the precursors of leukocytes
D. have multiple nuclei

B. stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

Complications of aplastic anemia generally do not include ________.

A. increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss
B. impaired formation of all formed elements
C. suppressed immunity
D. bleeding disorders

A. increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

A. pancreas
B. liver
C. kidney
D. brain

C. kidney

[T/F] Leukemia refers to cancerous conditions involving white blood cells.

TRUE

[T/F] The normal RBC "graveyard" is the liver.

FALSE

[T/F] Myeloid stem cells give rise to all leukocytes.

FALSE

Which of the following is not a functional characteristic of WBCs?

A. ameboid motion
B. positive chemotaxis
C. granulosis
D. diapedesis

C. granulosis

Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?

A. normoblast
B. polymorphonuclear cell
C. megakaryocyte
D. hemocytoblast

D. hemocytoblast

Blood reticulocyte counts provide information regarding ________.

A. clotting ability of the blood
B. rate of platelet formation
C. rate of erythrocyte formation
D. WBC ability to defend the body against disease

C. rate of erythrocyte formation

Select the incorrect statement regarding blood cell formation.

A. Lymphocytes are formed from lymphoblasts.
B. Erythrocytes are formed from normoblasts.
C. Platelets are formed from myeloblasts.
D. Eosinophils are formed from myeloblasts,

C. Platelets are formed from myeloblasts.

Which of the following is not a structural characteristic that contributes to erythrocyte gas transport functions?

A. hemoglobin containing-sack
B. produces energy anaerobically
C. biconcave shape
D. mitotically active

D. mitotically active

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and causing an appearance of large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________.

A. sickle-cell anemia
B. aplastic anemia
C. polycythemia
D. pernicious anemia

D. pernicious anemia

Which of the following would not be a possible cause of sickling of red blood cells in someone with sickle-cell anemia?

A. travel at high altitude
B. sleeping in a well-ventilated room
C. malaria and travel at high altitude
D. vigorous exercise

B. sleeping in a well-ventilated room

Which of the formed elements contains hemoglobin and transports respiratory gases?

A. agranular leukocytes
B. platelets
C. granular leukocytes
D. erythrocytes

D. erythrocytes

Which of the following is NOT a functional characteristic of leukocytes?

A. positive chemotaxis
B. leukocytosis
C. diapedesis
D. amoeboid motion

B. leukocytosis

Which of the following is NOT a formed element of the blood?

A. antibodies
B. platelets
C. leukocytes
D. erythrocytes

A. antibodies

Choose the statement that is true concerning hemoglobin.

A. It is found in the plasma portion of blood.
B. can bind a maximum of three oxygen molecules.
C. It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups.
D. When hemoglobin is not bound to oxygen, it appears blue.

C. It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups.

In adults, red blood cell production occurs in __________.

A. the liver
B. the thymus
C. red bone marrow
D. yellow bone marrow

C. red bone marrow

Bilirubin is cleared from the body by __________.

A. the pancreas
B. the kidneys
C. the liver
D. the spleen

C. the liver

An abnormal excess of erythrocytes is called __________.

A. polycythemia
B. leukocytosis
C. sickle-cell anemia
D. thalassemia

A. polycythemia

The most abundant leukocytes are __________.

A. neutrophils
B. lymphocytes
C. monocytes
D. basophils

A. neutrophils

On a blood smear slide prepared using Wright's stain, you observe a large cell with a U-shaped nucleus and pale blue cytoplasm. This cell is most likely a(n) __________.

A. eosinophil
B. lymphocyte
C. basophil
D. monocyte

D. monocyte

Platelet formation is regulated by __________.

A. thrombopoietin
B. erythropoietin
C. plasmin
D. interleukin-2

A. thrombopoietin

Hemostasis leads to __________.

A. heme production
B. stoppage of bleeding
C. white blood cell production
D. red blood cell production

B. stoppage of bleeding

The first step in hemostasis is __________.

A. vascular spasm
B. platelet plug formation
C. fibrin production
D. coagulation

A. vascular spasm

When a person has an acute bacterial infection, such as meningitis or appendicitis, which type of leukocyte increases in number?

A. lymphocytes
B. basophils
C. neutrophils
D. eosinophils

C. neutrophils

Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?

A. lymphocytes
B. monocytes
C. basophils
D. eosinophils

A. lymphocytes

When we take anti-histamines, we are countering the effects of which type of leukocyte?

A. neutrophils
B. eosinophils
C. basophils
D. lymphocytes

C. basophils

What do the lymphoid stem cells give rise to?

A. granulocytes
B. monocytes
C. erythrocytes
D. lymphocytes

D. lymphocytes

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