Chapter 14 (Endocrine System)

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Book: Quick & Easy Medical Terminology (6th edition) Chapter 14: Endocrine System Author: Leonard Publisher: Saunders

endo-

inside

-crine

secrete

dys-

"bad", impaired

coordinates with the nervous system to regulate body activities

endocrine system

hyposecretion

dysfunctional hormone production involving a deficiency

hypersecretion

dysfuntional hormone production involving an excess

"hormonal system"

endocrine system

function of the endocrine system

coordinates iwth the nervous sytem to regulate body activities

hyposecretion

insufficient secretion

hypersecretion

excessove secretion

hypophysis

pituitary

hypo-

beneath (or below normal)

para-

near or beside (also abnormal)

pancreas

islets of Langerhans

hormones

chemical substances that are discharged into the bloodstream and used in other parts of the body

ductless glands; hormones secreted into bloodstream

endocrine glands

glands with ducts; open onto a body surface (e.g. sweat glands)

exocrine glands

exocrine glands are part of the endocrine system (true or false)

false

target organ

the organ or structure toward which the effects of a hormone are primarily directed

two ways endocrine glands release hormones

1) hormones are released in response to the nervous system
2) pituitary produces hormones that act on endocrine glands, which then produce hormones

nicknamed the "master gland"

pituitary gland

gonadotropic hormones

also called gonadtropins; produced by the pituitary gland and act on the gonads

gonads

ovaries or testicles

attached by a stalk at the base of the brain

hypophysis (or pituitary gland)

located within the pancreas

isletes of Langerhands

shaped like a pinecone and is attached to the posterior part of the brain

pineal gland

believed to secrete hormone melatonin; precise function not yet established

pineal gland

loacated at the front of the neck, consists of bilateral lobes that are connected by a narrow strip of tissue

thyroid gland

located near the thyroid, actuallly embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid

parathyroid glands

elongated structure that has digestive functions as well as endocrine functions

pancreas

pancreatic cells

islets of Langerhans

lies above each of the two kidneys

adrenal gland

endocrine glands as well as organs that produce ova or sperm

ovaries and testes

glands

structures that compose the endocrine system (endocrine glands, to be specific)

hormones

chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands

list the endocrine glands

pancreas, pineal, pituitary (hypophysis), thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, ovaries, testes

pancreat/o

pancreas

parathyroid/o

parathyroids

pituitar/o

pituitary gland

hypophys/o

pituitary gland

ren/o

kidney

thyr/o, thyroid/o

thyroid gland

toxic/o

poison

-gen

beginning, origin

-physis

growth

-tropic

stimulate

-tropin

that which stimulates

-uria

urine, urination

adren/o

adrenal glands

andr/o

male or masculine

gigant/o

giant

gonad/o

gonad

insulin/o

insulin

iod/o

iodine

myx/o

mucus

adrenaline

also known as epinephrine

androgen

testosterone is a major androgen

antidiuretic hormone

ADH

estrogen

female sex hormones; includes estradiol and estrone

thyroxine

iodine-containing hormone

hormone of the testicles

androgen

hormones of the adrenals

adrenaline (epinephrine), cortisone

hormone of the pituitary

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

synthesizes antidiuretic hormone and other hormones; controls secretion by the pituitary

hypothalamus

hormone of the ovaries (primarily)

estrogen

hormone of the pituitary; stimulation of body growth, and maintenance of size once growth is obtained

growth hormone

hormone of the pancreas

insulin

hormone of the thyroid

thyroxine

potent stimulator of the "fight or flight" response, increasing blood pressure and cardiac output

epinephrine (also known as adrenaline)

epinephrine

adrenaline

development and maintenance of masculinizing characteristics

androgen

major androgen hormone

testosterone

suppression of urine formation

antidiuretic hormone

important in regulation of body metabolism

cortisone

during menstrual cycle, acts on female genitalia to produce suitable site for fertilization, implantation, and nutrition of the early embryo

estrogen

regulation of blood glucose by coordinating with other hormones

insulin

cell metabolism

thyroxine

insufficient secrection (hyposecretion) or improper use of this hormone leads to diabetes mellitus

insulin

hyper-

above

ex-

outward

ophthalm/o

eye

hyperthyroidism

abnormally increased activity of the thyroid

classic finding associated with hyperthyroidism

exophthalmos

exophthalmos

protrusion of the eyeballs

goiter

enlarged thyroid gland

euthyroid

normal thyroid function

hypothyroidism

decreased activity of the thyroid

eu-

normal

physical indications of endocrine disorders

unusually tall or short stature, coarsening of facial features, edema, hair loss, excessive facial hair in women

edema

acculmulation of fluid int the interstitial tissues

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

diabetes insipidus

disorder associated with a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or inability of the kidneys to resond to ADH

diabetes mellitus

DM

well-known type of diabetes that produces hyperglycemia and is associated with insufficient or improper use of insulin

diabetes mellitus

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

characterized by abrupt onset of symptoms and a dependence on insulin injections to sustain life

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

characterized by a gradual onset; dietary control, sometimes combined with oral hypoglycemic medications, may be effective in regulating the disorder

"Diabetics"

persons who have diabetes mellitus

polyuria

frequent urniation

polydipsia

increased thirst

two characteristics of both diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus

polyuria and polydipsia

type of diabetes not associated with insulin deficiency

diabetes insipidus

hyperglycemia

increased level of glucose in the blood

glycosuria

sugar in the urine

poly-

many

-dipsia

thirst

glyc/o

sugar

-emia

blood

disorder associated with deficiency of ADH

diabetes insipidus

acromegaly

disorder in which there is abnormal enlargement of the extremities of the skeleton (nose, jaws, fingers, and toes) caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone after maturity

acr/o

extremity

-megaly

enlarged

adenoma

tumor of a gland

-oma

tumor

cretinism

condition caused by cogenital deficiency of thyroid secretion and marked by arrested physical and mental development

-al, -ary, -ic

pertaining to

axill/o

axilla

faci/o

facial

pub/o

pubis

umbilic/o

umbilicus (navel)

dwarfism

disease caused by hyposecretion of gowth hormone during childhood; it causes a person to be much smaller than normal size

gigantism

condition in which a person reaches an abnormal stature; it results from hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood

hyperinsulinism

excessive secretion of insulin by the pancreas, which causes hypoglycemia

hyperparathyroidism

increased activity of the parathyroid glands

hypoglycemia

abnormally low blood sugar

hypoparathyroidism

decreased activity of the parathyroid glands

hypopituitarism

diminished activity of the pituitary gland

myxedema

condition resulting from hypofunction of the thyroid gland, characterized by a dry, waxy swelling of the skin

-edema

swelling

thyrotoxicosis

morbid condition caused by excessive thyroid secretion

-osis

condition

abnormal enlargement of the extremities

acromegaly

abnormally tall stature

gigantism

condition caused by congenital deficiency of thyroid secretion

cretinism

disorder associated with insufficient or improper use of insulin

diabetes mellitus

disorder caused by insufficient ADH or inability of kidneys to respond to ADH

diabetes insipidus

enlarged thyroid gland that results in swelling of the neck

goiter

outward protrusion of the eyeballs

exophthalmos

hypophysectomy

surgical removal or destruction of the pituitary gland

-ectomy

excision

adenectomy

removal of a gland

thyroidectomy

removal of the thyroid gland

aden/o

gland

aden/o vs. adren/o vs. andr/o

aden/o (gland) vs. adren/o (adrenal gland) vs. andr/o (male)

-tropic vs. -tropin

-tropic (stimulate) vs. -tropin (that which stimulates)

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