## Equilibrium Test

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kawaiihime  on April 19, 2010

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# Equilibrium Test

 Phase EquilibriumFreezing point is an example of...? [Ex. H₂O (s) <=> H₂O (l)]
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#### Definitions

Phase Equilibrium Freezing point is an example of...? [Ex. H₂O (s) <=> H₂O (l)]
Solution Equilibrium Saturation is an example of...? [Ex. NaCl (s) <=> Na⁺(aq) + Cl⁻(aq)]
Closed System conditions where energy can leave, but matter can't
temperature and concentration Rate of reaction depends on...? (2)
concentration If temperature is constant, rate only depends on...?
Equilibrium Point when the forward and reverse reaction proceed at equal rates
fewer; more; much; great; the forward reaction is favored As H₂ and O₂ molecules collide, there are __ and __ reactants and __ and __ products. At some point there is so __ product and the chance of these particles colliding is so __ that even if __, the forward and reverse reaction proceed at equal rates.
the rate of a reaction is directly proportional to the product of the molar (M) concentration of the reaction species Law of mass action
determine how fast a reaction proceeds, and to what extent the products are formed before reaching equilibrium Constant equilibrium is used to...?
Keq = [C]c [D]d / [A]a [B]b General rule at constant temperature for Keq when aA + bB <=> cC + dD
In theory, yes, but in reality, no. Are all reactions reversible?
there are more products and less reactants; forward reaction is favored Keq > 1 (2)
there are more reactants and less products; reverse reaction is favored Keq < 1 (2)
when a system at equilibrium is subjected to as stress, the equilibrium will shift in the direction that tends to counteract the effect of the stress LeChatelier's Principle
favors forward reaction; shifts to the right If increase in formation of products, which reaction is favored? which way does the equilibrium shift?
favors reverse reaction; shifts to the left If increase in formation of reactants, which reaction is favored? which way does the equilibrium shift?
concentration, temperature, pressure What stresses cause a change in equilibrium?
right; more A will react with B which then forms more products C + D; decreases; increase A + B <=> C + D If increase [A], the reaction will shift to the __ because __. What happens to [B]? to [C] and [D]? (2)
left; an increase in A is wanted; increases; decrease; does not change A + B <=> C + D If decrease [A], the reaction will shift to the __ because __. What happens to [B]? to [C] and [D]? to the Keq?
temperature only stress where the Keq will change
left; endothermic; increase temperature is relieved by absorbing heat; increase; decrease; decrease A + B <=> C+ D + heat If increase temperature, the reaction will shift to the __. The __ reaction is favored because __. What happen to [A] and [B]? to [C] and [D]? to the Keq?
right; exothermic; decrease temperature is relieved by giving off heat; decrease; increase; increase A + B <=> C+ D + heat If decrease temperature, the reaction will shift to the __. The __ reaction is favored because __. What happen to [A] and [B]? to [C] and [D]? to the Keq?
change in concentration balances out the volume change caused by pressure; fewer; more Why is does pressure not change the Keq of a substance? Increase pressure favors __ molecules. Decrease pressure favors __ molecules.
right; left N₂(g) + 3H₂(g) <=> 2 NH₃(g) If pressure increases, equilibrium will shift to the __. If pressure decreases, equilibrium will shift to the __.
make ammonia; N₂(g) + 3H₂(g) <=> 2 NH₃(g) + 22kj The Haber process was used to...? Give the chemical reaction.
endothermic (reverse); high; increase the rate of both reactions N₂(g) + 3H₂(g) <=> 2 NH₃(g) + 22kj Although increase temperature favors the __ reaction, the Haber process needed __ temperature to __ so that equilibrium is arrived at faster.
high; increased; forward; fewer N₂(g) + 3H₂(g) <=> 2 NH₃(g) The Haber process needed __ pressure because __ pressure would favor the __ reaction with __ molecules.
by drawing off NH₃ while adding more H₂ and N₂; not N₂(g) + 3H₂(g) <=> 2 NH₃(g) How did the Haber process manipulate concentrations to favor the formation of Ammonia? The reaction is __ allowed to reach equilibrium.
equilibrium is arrived at faster; Platinum (Pt); Iron (Fe); no In the Haber process, catalysts are used so that __. Do catalysts such as __ or __ cause a shift in equilibrium?
dilute; greater 1; 0.1 and 1; less; 0.1 Solution can be either concentrated or __? "Soluble" is __ than __g/100g H₂O. "Slightly soluble" is between __-__g/100g H₂O. "Insoluble" is __ than __g/100g H₂O
solubility product constant; to predict concentration What is Ksp? What is Ksp used for?
the molar concentration of a liquid or solid is constant AB <=> A⁺+ B⁻ When solving for Ksp, why can the dividing by the reactant concentration be eliminated from the equation?
Ksp = the product of the molar concentrations of the ions each raised to the appropriate power Ksp equation
soluble; insoluble Compounds with higher Ksp tend to be more __. Compounds with lower Ksp tend to be more __.
the number of moles of solute that are dissolved in a saturated solution per liter molar solubility
Increase S⁻² ions; left; even less PbS(s) <=> Pb⁺²(aq) + S⁻²(aq) What happens if very soluble Na₂S(s) is added into the aqueous solution of relatively insoluble PbS(s)? This causes a shift to the __ in the first reaction and therefore __ PbS remains in solution.
Ksp; state chart; reactants; Ksp; will; Ksp; will notTo determine whether a compound will precipitate out of solution: Look up the __ of the compound in your __. Using the information given in the problem, calculate the molar concentration of the __ and find the __. If the __ you found is greater than the official __ then the compound __ precipitate out. If the __ you found is less than the official __, the compound __ precipitate out.
divided by two When determining whether a compound, such as AgCl, will precipitate out of solution: If 1L of of 1x10⁻³M AgNO₃ is mixed with 1L of 1x10⁻²M of NaCl, you must __ because now the reactant concentrations are moles per 2L.
[x]; [2x]; Ksp = [x][2x]²= 4x³ When solving for the Ksp remember to check the coefficients of the reactants: [Ex. AB₂ <=> A + 2B] If we let the concentration of AB₂ to be [x], then what are [A]? and [B]? How is the Ksp equation written?
fewer collisions Why does an increase in the pressure of a gas-phase equilibrium favor the formation of fewer molecules of gas?
no change Given N₂(g) + O₂(g) <=> 2NO(g): What will happen if pressure is increased? decreased?
a chemical change in which the reactants can be re-formed from the products reversible reaction
the forward and reverse reactions continue to take place even though equilibrium has been reached Why is a chemical equilibrium described as dynamic?

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