An eyewitness, character witness, or other person called on to testify who is not considered an expert, is known as a ___________ witness
The judge is responsible for presenting the state's case against the defendant
Which statement is false regarding the role of the judge in the courtroom work group?
quasi-legal advisor to the police.
The role of a defense attorney includes all of the following except:
Courts that have the authority to review a decision made by a lower court are said to have:
state court administrator
A coordinator who assists with case-flow management, operating funds budgeting, and court docket administration is known as:
At least one study suggests that some prosecutors have a tendency to be lenient toward female defendants but discriminate against ________ defendants when deciding whether to prosecute.
dispute resolution center
An informal hearing place designed to mediate interpersonal disputes without resorting to the more formal arrangements of a criminal trial court.
The Herrera decision severely limited access by state defendants to federal courts, with the ruling that new evidence of innocence is no reason for a federal court to order a new state trial if constitutional grounds are lacking
The lawful authority of a court to review a decision made by a lower court is known as original jurisdiction.
It is the responsibility of the clerk of court to keep order in the courtroom and to maintain physical custody of the jury.
The pretrial release of a criminal defendant on his or her written
promise to appear in court as required.
Release on recognizance is defined as:
The two-sided structure under which American criminal trial courts operate is also known as:
within 48 hours
McNabb v. U.S. formally established that a defendant being held in custody has a right to appear in court before a magistrate:
1984 Federal Bail Reform Act
What federal legislation allows federal judges to deny bail to persons who are thought to be dangerous?
One group designed to help improve the court system and the adjudication process is:
to prevent people who have not been convicted from suffering imprisonment
Bail serves two purposes. One is to help ensure the reappearance of the accused at trial. The other is:
____________ is oral evidence offered by a sworn witness on the witness stand during a criminal trial.
An " oral or written request made to a court at any time before, during, or after court proceedings, asking the court to make a specified finding, decision, or order." is also known as:
determine if there is probable cause to hold the defendant for trial.
A preliminary hearing is held to:
Grand juries are comprised of private citizens who hear evidence presented by the prosecution and often consist of _______________ members.
Plea bargaining circumvents the trial process and dramatically reduces the time required for
the resolution of a criminal case.
A defendant is usually present during a grand jury inquiry and the defense cross examines witnesses.
Automatic video recording of the proceedings, using ceiling-mounted cameras with voice-initiated switching is a step in attempting to improve the adjudication process.
A model of criminal justice punishment that encourages rehabilitation through the use of general relatively unspecific sentences is called:
The examination of a convicted offender's background prior to sentencing that is generally conducted by probation or parole officials is called the:
The death penalty causes too many appeals and clogs the court system.
Which one of the following is not a main rationale in opposing the death penalty?
that a direct relationship between the severity of the sanctions and the seriousness of the crime.
Proportionality is defined:
Writ of Habeas Corpus
___________ directs the person detaining a prisoner to bring him or her before a judicial officer to determine the lawfulness of the imprisonment.
The use of court-ordered community service, home detention, day reporting, drug treatment,
psychological counseling, victim-offender programming, or intensive supervision in lieu of other more traditional sanctions, such as imprisonment and fines.
usually a written document describing the suffering and trauma experienced by the crime victim used before sentencing.
A victim-impact statement is:
Victim Impact statements generally have a profound impact on the sentence that a defendant receives.
___________ is the managed return to the community of an individual released from prison. Also, the successful transitioning of a released inmate back into the community.
remote location monitoring.
____________ is a supervision strategy that uses electronic technology to track offenders who have been sentenced to house arrest or who have been ordered to limit their movements while completing a sentence involving probation or parole.
Probation, parole, home confinement, and electronic monitoring are examples of:
assistance to prosecutors by conducting arrests and investigations
Which of the following is not a function of a probation or parole officer's work?
Mempa v. Rhay held that a probationer should have the opportunity for ________ before a deferred prison sentence can be imposed.
What kind of parole hearing determines whether the parolee has violated the conditions of his or her parole?
______________ is an early release option under which an inmate who is deemed "low risk" due to a serious physical or mental health condition is released from prison earlier than he or she might have been under normal circumstances.
What type of probation might require face-to-face contacts between the officer and the probationer five times a week, a mandatory curfew, having a job, and submitting to weekly alcohol and drug testing?
break the cycle of criminal recidivism
The Second Chance Act of 2008 authorized the spending of approximately 400 million dollars to:
Probation and parole services are characteristically poorly staffed and often poorly administered.
Individuals ordered confined to their homes are sometimes monitored electronically to ensure they do not leave during the hours of confinement.
A probation officer must get a search warrant before a search of a probationer's residence is permitted.
The Pennsylvania system
Which early prison system was heralded as the one that was humane and provided inmates with the opportunity for rehabilitation?
The community based era
Work release is representative of which era in the development of U.S. prisons?
hold suspects following arrest and pending trial
Which of the following is a characteristic of jails?
_____________ are jails that are built and run using the combine resources of a variety of local jurisdictions.
The punitive era
The term "stir crazy" grew out of the experiences of many inmates during which prison era?
ADMAX or Administrative maximum is the term used by the federal government to denote:
__________ is an imprisonment strategy that is based on the desire to prevent recurrent crime and that has abandoned all hope of rehabilitation.
The California Department of Corrections had an unwritten policy of racially segregating prisoners in order to prevent racial violence. In 2005 the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed that policy and held that it:
Captain Alexander Maconochie
___________ is most noted as the originator of what we know as today's early release program.
The Just Deserts philosophy has led to substantial and continued increases in the American prison population.
The Warehousing Era is a correctional model intended to capitalize on the labor of convicts sentenced to confinement.
Use other inmates to get what you need and want.
Which of the following is NOT an element of the prisoner's code?
__________ is the values and behavioral patterns characteristic of prison inmates.
Streetwise young women with no respect for traditional prison values.
"Crack Kids" in prison argot are
. intelligence gathering
Correctional personnel have a role to play in preventing terrorist attacks on America by:
A security threat group (STG) is an inmate group, gang, or organization whose members act
together to pose a threat to the safety of corrections staff or the public, who prey upon other inmates, or who threaten the secure and orderly operation of a correctional institution.
Prisoners had no reasonable expectation of privacy in his cell.
Prisoners had no reasonable expectation of privacy in his cell.
the federal courts
Within a few years following the end of the hands-off doctrine, ________ intervened in the running of prisons in numerous states
inmates denied the opportunity to vote, hold public office, or enter into contracts.
Civil death refers to:
Career female offenders who have adapted to prison life and generally keep to themselves are known as the:
Wilson v. Seiter
Which Supreme Court case signals a return to the hands-off doctrine of earlier times?
There is mandatory psychological testing, for all new correctional officers, prior to hiring, in all 50 states.
Permanent organizational and structural modifications intended to alter the juvenile justice
system, including the closing of facilities and the elimination of agencies is a strategy for future treatment of juveniles known as:
In re Gault
Which landmark U.S. Supreme court case guaranteed juvenile the following rights: Notice of charges, right to counsel, right to confront and to cross examine witnesses and protection against self-incrimination
which of the following categories of children "violate laws written only for children"?
a juvenile petition
A document filed in juvenile court alleging that a juvenile is a delinquent, a status offender, or a dependent and asking that the court assume jurisdiction over the juvenile is:
___________ is the first step in decision making regarding a juvenile whose behavior or alleged behavior is in violation of the law or could otherwise cause a juvenile court to assume jurisdiction.
The fact-finding process by which the juvenile court determines whether there is sufficient evidence to sustain the allegations in a petition.
The final stage in the processing of adjudicated juveniles in which a decision is made on the form of treatment or penalty that should be imposed on the child.
________________Juvenile Court Act created a juvenile court, separate in form and function from adult criminal courts. To avoid the lasting stigma of criminality, the law applied the term delinquent rather than criminal to young adjudicated offenders.
Which of the following is not one of the six categories of children in the juvenile justice system?
In 2011, the U.S. Supreme Court, held that the age of suspects must be considered when determining whether they would feel free not to respond to police questioning.
Nationally, there are almost no problems with overcrowding conditions in juvenile detention centers.
A blended sentence is a juvenile court disposition that imposes both a juvenile sanction
and an adult criminal sentence upon an adjudicated delinquent.
a balance of prevention, treatment, and law enforcement
In 2011, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, through its annual publication, the National Drug Control Strategy endorsed:
recreational drug user.
A person who uses drugs relatively infrequently, primarily with friends, and in social contexts is known as a(n):
A 2011 report by the U.S. Department of Justice's National Drug Intelligence Center, entitled The Economic Impact of Illicit Drug Use on American Society, placed the annual national cost of illicit drug use in the United States at:
Which of the following categories of psychoactive drugs permits over the counter purchase of drugs?
________________ are synthetic psychoactive substances often found at "raves," and dance parties. They include MDMA (Ecstasy), ketamine, and methamphetamines.
______________ is a responsive strategy to the drug usage problem that substantially reduces penalties associated with drug use but may not eliminate them entirely.
Dade County Drug Court Model
Drug courts are a special state, county, or municipal court that offers first-time substance-abuse offenders judicially mandated and court supervised treatment alternatives to prison. They are innovative and are modeled after the:
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
Which piece of legislation still forms the basis of federal enforcement efforts today?
The first piece of major federal anti-drug legislation was with the controlled substance act of 1970.
Psychological dependence is a biologically based craving for a specific drug that results from frequent use of the substance.
The National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee data indicate that Marijuana has become the country's most dangerous commonly used drug.
The DARE program has been shown, through the commission of several studies, to be one of the most effective tools available to stop or reduce drug usage.
small groups of homegrown terrorists
The Bipartisan Policy Center's National Security Preparedness Group released a wide-ranging report on the evolving nature of terrorism. The report, Assessing the Terrorist Threat made it clear that the biggest threat to American national security may now be from:
___________ is the surrender by one state or jurisdiction to another of an individual accused or convicted of an offense in the second state or jurisdiction.
In 2009 U.S. Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan shot and killed 13 soldiers at Fort Hood, Texas. This may be an example of:
The Turner Diaries
_________________ describes an Aryan revolution that occurs in the United States during the1990s in which Jews, blacks, and other minorities are removed from positions of influence in government and society.
Illegal immigration in which an agent is paid to help a person cross a border clandestinely is known as:
A _____________ crime is a minor violation of Islamic law that is regarded as an offense against society, not God.
1988 with Pan-Am flight 103 over Scotland.
The first time Americans who were undeniably the target of international terrorism occurred in:
_______________ is the internationalization of trade, services, investment, information, and other forms of human social activity.
the Department of Homeland Security
Who is charged with protecting the nation's critical infrastructures against terrorist attack?
Cyberterrorism is a form of terrorism that makes use of high technology, especially computers and the Internet, in the planning and carrying out of terrorist attacks.
The UN Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials specifically targets Muslims and their rights.
An example of a transnational crime is a crime that is committed in one country but has substantial effects in another country.
Trafficking in persons (TIP) is the exploitation of unwilling or unwitting people through force, coercion, threat, or deception.
In 2011, the California Highway Patrol created _____________ for each of its divisions to join in on the social media network to inform the public of what they do.
The Computer Institute and FBI survey of 2010/2011 found the number one security targeted attack against companies involved:
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
The U.S. Supreme Court case that eased the criteria for the introduction of scientific evidence at both civil and criminal trials, effectively clearing the way for the use of DNA evidence in the courtroom is:
Seaport shipping containers
The 2011, Department of Homeland Security report to Congress was mostly concerned with weapons of mass destruction and other contraband entering the United States through:
Crimes that employ advanced or emerging technologies in their commission are referred to as:
________________ is a relatively new form of high-technology fraud that uses official-looking e-mail messages to elicit responses from victims, directing them to phony websites.
The unauthorized duplication of software or the illegal transfer of data from one storage medium to another is known as:
weapon of mass destruction
A chemical, biological, or nuclear weapon that has the potential to cause severe casualties is referred to as:
Which criminalistic technique is used to reconstruct the likeness of a decomposed or dismembered body?
_______________ is the use of technology in the service of criminal investigation; the application of scientific techniques to the detection and evaluation of criminal evidence.
The real-time and accurate overlay of digital information on a user's real-world experience, through visual, aural, and/or tactile interfaces is known as:
The study of insect behavior to determine the time of death of a corpse is called:
Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts
In 2010, the U. S. Supreme court further defined the role of forensic analysts, deciding that they are "witnesses" and their reports are "testimonial"—meaning that, under the Constitution's Confrontation Clause, they must personally testify at trial unless the defendant waives his or right to cross-examine them in which of the following cases?
Biocrime is a criminal offense perpetrated through the use of biologically active substances, but does not include chemicals and toxins.
Forensic entomology is the study of insects as a scientific tool used in solving criminal cases
The Daily Officer is an example law enforcement use of social media to get their message across through a twitter account.