Biology 121 Ch. 23

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Tarleton State University - Biology 121 - Terry Johnson

Which of the following statements regarding circulatory systems is TRUE

A circulatory system is necessary in any animal whose body is too large or too complex for vital chemicals to reach all parts of the body by diffusion

Which of the following is a function of the circulatory system?

Transporting nutrients to body cells

The two basic types of circulatory systems that have evolved over time are

Open and Closed

Adaptation to terrestrial life required major evolutionary changes. The change from gill breathing to lung breathing was accompanied by important changes in the

Cardiovascular System

Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and two heart chambers?

Salmon

Which of the following animals has a three-chambered heart?

Snake

Which of the following statements about mammalian circulatory systems is false?

The left side of a mammal's heart sends blood to the lungs.

In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the ________ just before entering the right atrium.

Superior Vena Cava

In mammals, which of the following vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lung back to the heart?

Pulmonary Vein

Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the

Pulmonary Arteries

Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs by the

Right Ventricle

From the left ventricle, oxygen-rich blood flows through the

Aorta

Largest blood vessel in the human body?

Aorta

During what phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood?

Diastole

Cardiac output is defined as the volume of blood pumped by a(n) ________ each time it contracts.

Ventricle

During ventricular systole, the ________ valves ________

Semilunar . . . open

The location of the heart's pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle called the

Sinoatrial Node

The main function of the AV node is to

Relay a signal for the ventricles to contract.

Myocardial infarction, also called a heart attack,

Is the damage or death of cardiac muscle tissue

Arteries are distinguished from veins based on all of the following features EXCEPT

The amount of oxygen present in the blood

Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls?

Capillaries

In humans, which blood vessels have valves?

Veins

The results suggest that the smallest flow volume would be found in the ___________ of the human body

Capillaries

Which statement best summarizes the results of the experiment?

The larger the tube diameter, the greater the flow volume.

As blood moves away from the heart towards the tissues, the relative size of blood vessels ________, the blood pressure ________, and the velocity of blood flow ________.

Decreases . . . drops. . . slows

In which of the following human blood vessels is the blood pressure lowest?

Veins in the head

Which kind of vessel has the lowest blood velocity?

Capillary

Which of the following factors contributes to the flow of blood in veins?

Skeletal muscle contractions

Which of the following statements regarding blood pressure is FALSE?

Hypertension is defined as persistent systolic pressure above 120 and/or diastolic above 80.

Which of the following can contribute to high blood pressure?

Smoking

Blood flow through capillaries is controlled by

Precapillary sphincters and smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles

What type of blood vessel is solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid?

Capillary

The diameter of a capillary is about the same as that of

A red blood cell

One way that substances move between blood and interstitial fluid is by

Pressure-driven flow through clefts between the epithelial cells of the capillary wall.

Whether there is a net flow of fluid into or out of a capillary at a given point along its length depends upon

The balance between blood pressure and osmotic pressure.

The liquid part of blood is called

Plasma

Which of these statements about erythrocytes is TRUE?

Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave discs

Which of the following cells are phagocytes?

Monocytes and neutrophils

An adult human's red blood cells are formed in the

Bone marrow

Blood clots are formed by platelets and the plasma protein

Fibrinogen

Which of the following statements about blood clotting is TRUE?

Threads of fibrin form a fibrin clot

Multipotent stem cells found in the red marrow inside bones

Can differentiate into all blood cells and platelets

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