Ch. 16 Psych 100B

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Using the Asch procedure, when would conformity to group judgements be LEAST likely?

When participants are NOT observed by other group members.

John's friends ask him to participate in some activities. He feels pressure to join them, even though the adventures might not be in his best interest. Which of the following reasons might be strengthening John's conformity to the group?

He admires the group's status, his culture strongly encourages respect for social standards, and his friends make him feel incompetent sometimes.

The catharsis hypothesis suggests that people feel better if they vent their emotions by "blowing off steam." At the same time, playing violent video games increases aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. What do the findings regarding video games have to say about the catharsis hypothesis?

They disconfirm the catharsis hypothesis.

In the Milgram experiments, the level of obedience was highest when the "teacher" was _____ the experimenter and _______ the "learner."

close to; far from

An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another is ______ love, while deep affectionate attachment is _______ love.

passionate; companionate

During a riot, a large sporting event, or mob action, we lose self-awareness and self-restraint. What is this known as?

Deindividuation

What is the term for an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship?

Passionate love

Hostilities between a riverfront community's two racial subgroups were dramatically reduced when the threat that the river would flood its banks required them to work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of which of the following concepts discussed in the chapter?

Superordinate goals

You decide that your free time over the weekend is not as important as the good feelings and the joy of giving back to the community that you'd get from volunteering at the Special Olympics. What concept does this illustrate?

Social exchange theory.

Which of the following is cognitive dissonance theory MOST helpful in understanding?

The impact of role-playing on attitude change.

What is it called when we perform better on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others?

Social facilitation

The Stanford Prison Experiment consisted of male college students who volunteered to participate in a simulated prison. Half of the students became guards, the other half prisoners. What is the name of the psychologist who had to call off the study in only 6 days because of the degrading behaviours the guards displayed as well as the prisoners who became passive, broke down, or rebelled?

Zimbardo

When the temperatures go up in the summer, the rates of violent crimes increase. This is best explained in terms of what phenomenon?

The frustration-aggression principle

Although we often cannot directly control all of our feelings, we can influence our feelings by changing the behaviour. This statement is the essence of what term?

Attitudes-follow-behaviour principle

What's the term for an unjustifiable, usually negative, attitude toward a group and its members?

Prejudice

You stop for a cup of coffee and the waitress yells at you when you sit at a table that has not been cleared. You are convinced that she would find another line of work - one in which her angry personality traits will not interfere with her job. However, you disregard the possibility that the restaurant is short of help that day. You have just fallen prey to what?

The fundamental attribution error

Who proposed cognitive dissonance theory?

Festinger

When we perform better on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others, what is this called?

Social facilitation

The fundamental attribution error is more apparent in ______ than it is in _____.

Individualistic western countries; east asian cultures

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