Psychology Exam #3

Created by tyler_dees 

Upgrade to
remove ads

69 terms

b. probability

Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic classes of problems?

a. transformation
b. probability
c. inducing structure
d. arrangement

c. tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use

Functional fixedness is the

a. inability to discover the relations among the parts of a problem
b. inability to carry out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal
c. tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use
d. sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error

c. mental set

If you tend to persist in using the same problem-solving strategy time after time, you are showing a(an)

a. delusion
b. illusion
c. mental set
d. generic insight

d. a heuristic

A shortcut, "rule of thumb", or guiding principle used in solving problems or making decisions is

a. an analogy
b. trial and error
c. insight
d. a heuristic

d. holistic cognitive style

Individuals from Eastern Asian cultures tend to focus on context and the relationships among elements in a field. This is referred to as a(n)

a. analytic cognitive style
b. additive cognitive style
c. subtractive cognitive style
d. holistic cognitive style

c. context and relationships among the elements in a field

Nisbett and his colleagues suggest that a holistic style of thinking is one that focuses on

a. objects and their properties, rather than overall context
b. following step-by-step procedures rather than using mental shortcuts
c. context and relationships among the elements in a field
d. external frames of reference and takes the environment as a given

d. an analytic cognitive style

Compared to individuals from Eastern cultures, individuals from Western cultures are more likely to display

a. a subtractive cognitive style
b. an additive cognitive style
c. a holistic cognitive style
d. an analytic cognitive style

b. more likely

According to Schwartz (2004), people who are overwhelmed with an abundance of choices are_________ to make errors in their choosing compared to people faced with fewer choices.

a. less likely
b. more likely
c. unlikely
d. equally likely

a. elimination by aspects approach

When faced with having to choose among numerous alternatives, most persons will opt for a(an)

a. elimination by aspects approach
b. additive approach
c. means/end analysis
d. subjective-utility model

d. additive strategies

Research suggests that when making a decision involving relatively few options people tend to use

a. elimination by aspects strategies
b. selection by aspect strategies
c. multiplication strategies
d. additive strategies

c. additive strategies

Which strategy for decision-making might involve the weighting of individual attributes differently based on the importance of the attributes?

a. selection by aspects strategy
b. elimination by aspects strategy
c. additive strategies
d. subtractive strategies

b. what an outcome is personally worth to an individual

Subjective utility refers to

a. the expected value of an outcome
b. what an outcome is personally worth to an individual
c. a personal estimate of what the probability of an outcome is
d. an individual's willingness to take risks

c. subjective utility

If you enjoy a day at the racetrack and don't really care if you end up with a little more or little less money at the end of the day, your behavior is most influenced by the ____________ _________ you put on your day's entertainment

a. expected value
b. unexpected value
c. subjective utility
d. objective utility

b. +.025 cents

You flip a fair coin ten times. Each time it comes heads you get ten cents. Each time it comes up tails you lose five cents. What is your expected value for each flip of the coin?

a. +10 cents
b. +.025 cents
c. -5 cents
d. -10 cents

c. risky decisions

__________________ involve making choices under uncertain conditions

a. algorithmic decisions
b. foolish decisions
c. risky decisions
d. preference decisions

b. the representativeness heuristic

When people overestimate the frequency of violent crimes because these events generate a great deal of media coverage, they are using

a. the availability heuristic
b. the representativeness heuristic
c. a holisitic decision model
d. the elimination by aspects strategy

a. not applying base rates to himself

Even though he knows only a small percentage of high school athletes go on to professional careers, Charlie believes that he will receive a scholarship to play football in college and then will have a career in the NFL. Charlie is

a. not applying base rates to himself
b. applying base rates to himself
c. not applying the law of small numbers
d. applying the law of small numbers

b. representativeness heuristic

The gambler's fallacy reflect the influence of

a. availability heuristic
b. representativeness heuristic
c. law of small numbers
d. conjunction heuristic

c. the availability heuristic

The media tends to report deaths from natural disasters far more often than deaths from smoking. Thus many people believe that natural disasters cause more deaths than cigarettes. This is an example of which of the following?

a. the means/end analysis
b. the compensatory decision model
c. the availability heuristic
d. the representativeness heuristic

d. human decision-making and problem-solving strategies have been tailored to handle real world adaptive problems

Evolutionary theorists argue all of the following EXCEPT that

a. traditional research on decision-making has imposed invalid and unrealistic standards of rationality
b. human brains are wired to think in terms of base rates and probabilities
c. humans only seem irrational because cognitive psychologists have been asking the wrong questions
d. human decision-making and problem-solving strategies have been tailored to handle real world adaptive problems

b. recognition heuristic

When people must choose between two alternatives, and the recognize one alternative but not the other, they often infer that the alternative they recognize has the higher value. This decision-making heuristic is called the

a. representativeness heuristic
b. recognition heuristic
c. framing heuristic
d. conjunction heuristic

c. fast and frugal

Which heuristic do MOST people employ when making everyday, common-place decisions?

a. forming subgoals
b. changing the representation of the problem
c. fast and frugal
d. searching for analogies

a. performance scale

Austin is completing the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and one section of the test evaluates his ability to analyze patterns and copy designs using blocks. Austin's score on this section of the test will be used in the computation of his score on

a. performance scale
b. verbal scale
c. practical scale
d. spatial scale

b. practical intelligence in everyday life

Most intelligence tests over the years have tended to stress

a. verbal and reasoning skills related to academics
b. practical intelligence in everyday life
c. social intelligence and human relationships
d. general mental ability, which includes verbal, practical, and social intelligence

a. academic success

IQ tests are fairly good predictors of

a. academic success
b. vocational success
c. creativity
d. social success

d. identical twins reared together

The IQ scores of ________ show the highest correlation.

a. fraternal twins reared apart
b. fraternal twins reared together
c. identical twins reared apart
d. identical twins reared together

d. genetically

Reaction range is the __________ determined limit on IQ (or other traits).

a. economically
b. environmentally
c. socially
d. genetically

b. non-correlated

A deprived environment is generally _________ correlated with IQ.

a. positively
b. non-correlated
c. relatively
d. negatively

a. practical intelligence

Alex is very skilled at dealing effectively with the problems he encounters in everyday life. Steinberg would be MOST likely to predict that Alex has high

a. practical intelligence
b. analytical intelligence
c. creative intelligence
d. practical, analytical, and creative intelligence

c. interpersonal intelligence

Gardner's view of intelligence suggests that a highly successful car salesperson would be MOST likely to have high

a. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
b. linguistic intelligence
c. interpersonal intelligence
d. all of the above

b. creative ideas must be both novel and useful

Which of the following statements concerning creativity is NOT accurate?

a. a creative individual usual excels in a single area or field
b. creative ideas must be both novel and useful
c. divergent thinking contributes to creativity
d. creativity usually occurs in a burst of insight

d. extraverted

All of the following are traits of creative personalities EXCEPT

a. introversion
b. self-accepting
c. driven
d. extraverted

b. 80%

According to Anderson (1987,2005) what percentage of writers suffered a mood disorder at some point in their life?

a. 60%
b. 80%
c. 30%
d. 50%

b. intelligence

Which of the following is a hypothetical construct?

a. reaction time
b. intelligence
c. heart rate
d. acuity

d. conscientiousness

Higher GPAs in both high school and college are correlated with which of the following personality traits?

a. extraversion
b. neuroticism
c. agreeableness
d. conscientiousness

a. neuroticism

Which of the following personality traits is negatively correlated with occupations attainment?

a. neuroticism
b. conscientiousness
c. extraversion
d. openness to experience

c. neuroticism

Which of the following personality traits, when seen in married individuals, reduces the risk of divorce?

a. openness to experience
b. conscientiousness
c. neuroticism
d. extraversion

a. conscientiousness

Which of the following personality traits has been shown to be related to health and well-being to such a degree that individuals high in this trait live longer than other people?

a. conscientiousness
b. agreeableness
c. openness to experience
d. extraversion

a. They do not fully capture human personality

Which of the following is an accurate portrayal of BUSS' conclusion regarding the Big Five personality characteristics?

a. They do not fully capture human personality
b. They are all related to essential social characteristics important for survival
c. They can be reduced to two basic features
d. They are more elucidative for women than men

c. Agreeableness and conscientiousness

Which personality traits have been found to reduce the probability of divorce?

a. Agreeableness and openness to experience
b. Extraversion and agreeableness
c. Agreeableness and conscientiousness
d. Extraversion and openness to experience

...

Which of the following approaches to personality is most firmly rooted in empirical research?

a. Behavioral approach
b. Psychoanalytic approach
c. Humanistic approach
d. Cognitive approach

...

The evolutionary approach to personality suggests that ________ may have contributed to reproductive fitness.

a. Various personality traits
b. The ability to recognize various personality traits in others
c. Both various personality traits and the ability to recognize the traits in others
d. Neither various personality traits nor the ability to recognize the traits in others

...

Consistent with terror management theory, in the months following 9/11, individuals showed all of the following behaviors EXCEPT an

a. Increase in admiration of individuals who uphold cultural standards such as firefighters
b. Increase in expressions of patriotism and religious faiths
c. Increase in separations and divorces
d. Increase in hostility towards individuals who question government policies

...

Personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior are referred to as
a. Behavioral personality tests
b. Objective tests
c. Self-report inventories
d. Projective tests

a. of the cumulative nature of stress

Minor stresses may be more strongly related to mental health than major stressful events largely because

a. of the cumulative nature of stress
b. minor stresses lead to more intense physiological arousal than major stresses
c. we are much more intimately involved with minor stresses
d. we feel more out of control with minor stresses than we do with major stresses

b. are traumatic

Which of the following is NOT included in the definition of stress? Stress includes circumstances that

a. tax one's coping abilities
b. are traumatic
c. threaten one's well-being
d. are perceived to threaten one's well-being

c. people's appraisals of stressful events are highly subjective

Imagine you studied for this psychology exam with two of your classmates. If one classmate, Becky, was very nervous and "stressed-out" about the exam, and the other classmate, Craig thought the exam "wasn't a big deal," their differing attitudes are MOST consistent with the finding that

a. some people use constructive coping techniques to reduce stress
b. people's appraisal of stressful events are highly objective
c. people's appraisals of stressful events are highly subjective
d. males experience many events as less stressful than females

b. is self-imposed

Recent research has found that the source of most pressure and stress

a. develops in grade school
b. is self-imposed
c. is notable in depressed patients
d. changes throughout life

b. avoidance-avoidance

Which type of conflict tends to be MOST unpleasant and highly stressful?

a. approach-approach
b. avoidance-avoidance
c. approach-avoidance
d. attack-avoidance

a. approach-avoidance

Behavioral vacillation would be MOST apt to go with which type of conflict?

a. approach-avoidance
b. approach-approach
c. avoidance-avoidance
d. frustration

c. enhanced immune response

Researchers have found an association between positive emotion and

a. low levels stress hormone
b. reduce mortality
c. enhanced immune response
d. all of the above

c. changes in one's life that require readjustment

Dr. Gaustad believes that getting a promotion at work or getting married is just as stressful as losing a job or getting a divorce. Dr. Gaustad is arguing that stress for people comes from

a. failures
b. live events involving loss
c. changes in one's life that require readjustment
d. only those life changes the person sees as negative

c. vacillation

Winona has a ten page term paper due first thing in the morning, and she still has over half of the paper left to write. At the same timer, her boyfriend is insisting that she come to the concert that evening where he will be performing his first violin solo. She knows that she needs to work on the paper, but she also knows her boyfriend will be disappointed if she doesn't attend the concert. Winona is MOST likely feeling

a. pressure
b. frustration
c. vacillation
d. burnout

c. learning and memory

Neurogenesis will MOST likely enhance

a. higher order thinking
b. personality
c. learning and memory
d. movement

d. alarm reaction

An organism first recognizes the existence of a threat and physiological arousal occurs during the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

a. fight-or-flight
b. resistance
c. exhaustion
d. alarm reaction

b. frustration

Aggression is frequently triggered by

a. helplessness
b. frustration
c. loneliness
d. change

a. a release of emotional tension that often accompanies stress

Suki routinely responds to stress with a learned helplessness response. Suki's response will involve

a. a release of emotional tension that often accompanies stress
b. passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events
c. protecting oneself from unpleasant situations by refusing to acknowledge them
d. atoning for unacceptable unconscious drives or impulses in socially acceptable ways

c. increased, rather than decreased, distress

People who use "giving up" or behavioral disengagement as a coping strategy typically experience

a. catastrophic thinking and self-blame
b. a release of negative emotional tension
c. increased, rather than decreased, distress
d. overcompensation of intellectualization

c. learn constructive coping strategies

The best way to deal with stress is

a. avoid it as much as possible
b. learn defensive coping strategies
c. learn constructive coping strategies
d. avoid it as much as possible and learn defensive coping strategies

d. reducing its activity, thus causing the body to become more vulnerable to illness

Stress affects the immune system by

a. increasing its activity, thus providing more protection from illness
b. altering its activity to defend against specific illnesses
c. reducing its activity initially, but then increasing its activity after an adjustment period
d. reducing its activity, thus causing the body to become more vulnerable to illness

c. optimism

Which personality characteristic is most associated with superior physical health as well as higher academic achievement and increased productivity?

a. agreeableness
b. openness
c. optimism
d. extraversion

c. 13-14 years

The average smoker has an estimated life expectancy ____ shorter than that of a similar nonsmoker

a. 4-5 years
b. 8-9 years
c. 13-14 years
d. 19-20 years

b. 25 percent

Long-term success rates for those who quit smoking are about

a. 10 percent
b. 25 percent
c. 50 percent
d. 75 percent

b. 30-50% of the time

Noncompliance with medical advice occurs approximately

a. 5-10% of the time
b. 30-50% of the time
c. 75% of the time
d. 80-90% of the time

c. increased autonomic arousal and stress

Research suggests that efforts to actively suppress emotions results in

a. decreased autonomic arousal and increased stress
b. increased autonomic arousal and decreased stress
c. increased autonomic arousal and stress
d. decreased autonomic arousal and stress

b. better adjustment and well-being

Research has demonstrated that the act of forgiving someone when one believes another person's actions were harmful or unjust is associated with

a. negative emotions and reduced life satisfaction
b. better adjustment and well-being
c. increased anxiety and depression
d. an increase in negative behaviors by the other person

b. only a substantial amount of exercise reduces one's risk of disease

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

a. even a moderate amount of exercise reduces one's risk of disease
b. only a substantial amount of exercise reduces one's risk of disease
c. exercise has little, if any, effect on one's risk of disease
d. only individual forms of exercise and not team sport forms of exercise reduce one's risk of disease

b. using drugs and smoking

When troubled with stress, many people engage in excessive or unwise patterns of which of the following?

a. eating and drinking
b. using drugs and smoking
c. spending money
d. all of the above

c. defensive coping

Smoking is to lunch cancer as Type A behavior is to

a. coronary disease
b. AIDS
c. defensive coping
d. mental disorders

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set