Disorders/Treatment

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DSM-IV

diagnostic statistical manual of mental disorders- criteria used to diagnose a mental disorder

Anxiety disorders

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

generalized anxiety disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of light-headedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months

phobia

an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations

panic attacks

attacks marked by intense heart palpitations, pressure or pain in the chest, dizziness or unsteadiness, sweating, and a feeling of faintness

obsessions

persistent ideas, thoughts, or impulses that are unwanted and inappropriate, causing marked distress

compulsions

irresistible impulses to perform senseless acts

OCD

repetitive behaviors, mental attacks, behaviors, preventing, reducing distress, prevented some dreaded event, reconizes obsessions are excessive or unreasonable, not apply to kids

mood disorders

class of psychological disorders involving disturbances in mood states, such as major depression and bipolar disorder

depression

a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity

dysthmic disorder

minor depressive episode, fills most of the day nearly everyday for two or more years

mania

an intense or extreme enthusiasm or excitement

bipolar disorder

a mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression

personality disorders

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

paranoid personality

Characterized by recurrent delusions of persecution and jealousy with suspicion and mistrust of other people; quick to take offense.

avoidant personality

extremely sensitive to rejection and therefore avoid relationships, unless they bring uncritical acceptance

narcissism

an exceptional interest in and admiration for yourself

histrionic personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior

borderline personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures

antisocial personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by amorality and lack of affect

dissociative disorders

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

psychogenic amnesia

loss of all or part of memory; does not have a physical cause

psychogenic fugue

dissociative disorder in which a person forgets who who they are and leaves home to creates a new life

dissociative identity disorder

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.

conversion disorder

a mental disorder characterized by the conversion of mental conflict into somatic forms (into paralysis or anesthesia having no apparent cause)

PTSD

an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images

hypochondria

chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments

schizophrenia

any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact

delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

hallucinations

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

clang associations

psychotic speech in which words are rhymed and spoken for their appealing sound

word salad

jumble of incoherent speech as sometimes heard in schizophrenia

flat effect

lack of emotional response; no expression of feeling; voice monotonous and face immobile

catatonic schizophrenia

a form of schizophrenia characterized by a tendency to remain in a fixed stuporous state for long periods

undifferentiated schizophrenia

mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria for any one type of schizophrenia

disorganized schizophrenia

a form of schizophrenia characterized by severe disintegration of personality including erratic speech and childish mannerisms and bizarre behavior

dopamine

neurotransmitter found in the brain and essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system, neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia

free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

latent content

(psychoanalysis) hidden meaning of a fantasy or dream

manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

systematic desensitization

a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety

flooding

a technique used in behavior therapy

counterconditioning

a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning

aversive conditioning

a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)

behavioral records

ways of changing unwanted habits, keep a running record of when a given habit or behavior occurs

token economy

conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards

rational emotive therapy

A Cognitive Therapy based on Albert Ellis' theory that cognitions control our emotions and behaviors; therefore, changing the way we think about things will affect the way we feel and the way we behave.

client-centered therapy

Therapy in which the therapist listens empathetically to the patient and offers unconditional positive regard.

active listening

empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies

unconditional positive regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

group therapy

psychotherapy where multiple people meet regularly to interact and help one another to achieve insight into their feelings and behavior; allows the therapist to see how the client interacts with others, offers a social support, and shows the client that s/he is not the only person with that problem; can be less expensive; includes family, couples, and self-help groups.

family therapy

therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication

eclectic therapy

therapeutic approach that draws upon principles and techniques representing different schools of therapy

psychopharmacology

drug therapy

psychosurgery

brain surgery on human patients intended to relieve severe and otherwise intractable mental or behavioral problems

prozac

a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed as an antidepressant (trade name Prozac)

antipsychotic drugs

biological treatment option used to treat the severe psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia; effective for treating hallucinations; blocks dopamine receptors; Examples: thorazine, therazine, clozapine,

clorazil

Sometimes awakens catatonic (unresponsive) patients (antipsychotic)

thorazine

a drug (trade name Thorazine) derived from phenothiazine that has anti-psychotic effects and is used as a sedative and tranquilizer

anti-psychotic medication

medication that reduces psychotic symptoms

anti-anxiety medication

benzodiazepines, increase activity of GABA

valium

a tranquilizer (trade name Valium) used to relieve anxiety and relax muscles

librium

a tranquilizer (trade names Librium and Libritabs) used in the treatment of alcoholism

antidepressents

a class of drugs that relieve the symptoms of depression

lithium

a chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar disorders

placebo effect

any effect that seems to be a consequence of administering a placebo

frontal lobotomy

surgical interruption of nerve tracts to and from the frontal lobe of the brain

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